Doubling of testicular cancer incidence rate over the last 20 years in southern France.
ABSTRACT In recent decades, testicular cancer incidence has considerably increased in a majority of industrialized countries. In France, short reports suggested that the testicular cancer incidence rate has also risen, especially in north-eastern regions. In Europe, geographical variation of incidence rates has been observed in Baltic countries and a clear birth cohort effect has been revealed. This study aimed to assess temporal trends in testicular cancer incidence in southern France. We examined incidence rates over a 20-year time period in a series of 506 consecutive cases of testicular cancer recorded from 1980 to 1999 in the Midi-Pyrenees region of France. Age, calendar period, and birth cohort effects were examined simultaneously using Poisson regression models. Our analysis found a significant rise in the overall incidence rate of testicular germ cell tumors from 1.27 to 3.04 per 100,000 between 1980-1984 and 1995-1999, an annual increase of 5.70%. These results, the first obtained in a large series in southern Europe, show a twofold increase in incidence rate of testicular cancer in the Midi-Pyrenees region, which is very similar to that observed in all European countries, more or less doubling in the last 20 years. Interestingly, this major jump and the apparent testicular cancer gradient between northern and southern Europe suggest considerable geographical heterogeneity in incidence, but low geographical variation in temporal trends.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate the clinical features and limitations of therapeutic management of testicular cancer in Senegal. Patients and methods This is a retrospective study over 15 years period between January 1997 and January 2012. Twenty-two cases were collected but only 17 had complete data for analysis. Results The average annual incidence was 1.13 cases per year, with a mean age of 27 ± 9.5 years. The most affected age group was between 21 and 40 years. Clinical diagnosis was suspected by the presence of a scrotal swelling in10 cases and by empty scrotum associated with abdominal or pelvic mass in the remaining 7 cases. Orchiectomy was the main treatment option, done either by high inguinal approach in 8 patients or by trans- peritoneal route in other 7 patients. Histologically, a predominance of embryonic non seminomatous germ cell carcinoma was noted in 10 cases including infantile type in one case. Seven cases developed disease progression:3 cases of peritoneal carcinmatosis, 3 other cases of locoregional invasion with retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy and one case of pulmonary metastasis. At a mean follow up of six months, nine patients died, four were lost to follow up while the remaining four cases were still alive. Conclusion Testicular cancer is a rare tumor in Senegal and usually involves young people. Clinical diagnosis is always done at very advanced stage with a very high mortality rate.African Journal of Urology 09/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Since the beginning of the 20th century there has been a decline in the reproductive vitality of men within the Western world. The declining sperm quantity and quality has been associated with increased overt disorders of sexual development including hypospadias, undescended testes and type II testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs). The increase in TGCTs cannot be accounted for by genetic changes in the population. Therefore exposure to environmental toxicants appears to be a major contributor to the aetiology of TGCTs and men with a genetic predisposition are particularly vulnerable. In particular, Type II TGCTs have been identified to arise from a precursor lesion Carcinoma in situ (CIS), identified as a dysfunctional gonocyte; however, the exact triggers for CIS development are currently unknown. Therefore the transition from gonocytes into spermatogonia is key to those studying TGCTs. Recently we have identified seven miRNA molecules (including members of the miR-290 family and miR-136, 463* and 743a) to be significantly changed over this transition period. These miRNA molecules are predicted to have targets within the CXCR4, PTEN, DHH, RAC and PDGF pathways, all of which have important roles in germ cell migration, proliferation and homing to the spermatogonial stem cell niche. Given the plethora of potential targets affected by each miRNA molecule, subtle changes in miRNA expression could have significant consequences e.g. tumourigenesis. The role of non-traditional oncogenes and tumour suppressors such as miRNA in TGCT is highlighted by the fact that the majority of these tumours express wild type p53, a pivotal tumour suppressor usually inactivated in cancer. While treatment of TGCTs is highly successful, the impact of these treatments on fertility means that identification of exact triggers, earlier diagnosis and alternate treatments are essential. This review examines the genetic factors and possible triggers of type II TGCT to highlight target areas for potential new treatments.F1000Research. 01/2013; 2:55.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this article is to establish guidelines proposed by the external genital organ group of the CCAFU for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the germ cell tumours of the testis. The multidisciplinary working party studied previous guidelines, exhaustively reviewed the literature, and evaluated references and their level of proof in order to attribute grades of recommendation. The initial work-up of testicular cancer is based on clinical, laboratory (AFP, total hCG, LDH) and imaging assessment (scrotal ultrasound and chest, abdomen and pelvis computed tomography). Inguinal orchidectomy is the first-line treatment allowing characterization of the histological type, local staging and identification of risk factors for micrometastases. The management of stage I tumours must be adapted to the risk by explaining to the patient the benefits/disadvantages of active treatment or watchful waiting as a function of the risk of relapse. Treatment options for stage 1 seminomas comprise : watchful waiting, chemotherapy (1 cycle of carboplatin) or para-aortic radiotherapy. Treatment options for stage 1 nonseminomatous germ cell tumours comprise : watchful waiting, chemotherapy (2 cycles of BEP) or staging retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy. The management of metastatic tumours essentially comprises chemotherapy with 3 or 4 cycles of BEP according to the prognostic group. Radiotherapy may be indicated in seminomas with lymph node metastasis < 3cm. Review 3 to 4 weeks post-chemotherapy is essentially based on tumour marker assays and chest, abdomen and pelvis computed tomography. Surgical retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is indicated for all residual NSGCT masses > 1cm and for persistent residual seminoma masses > 3cm with (18)F-FDG PET-CT uptake. Germ cell tumours have an excellent survival rate based on precise initial staging, adapted and strictly defined treatment and close surveillance.Progrès en Urologie 11/2013; 23 Suppl 2:S145-60. · 0.80 Impact Factor