Tumor recurrence after surgery for cervical carcinoma is associated with high fatality and morbidity, forming a major therapeutic challenge. This paper presents our experience with treatment of this patient group by salvage radiotherapy with curative intent.
Thirty-five patients with a pelvic recurrence after hysterectomy received high-dose radiotherapy. A retrospective analysis of long-term outcome and prognostic factors was performed.
After a median follow-up period of 12.1 years, actuarial 2-,5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 66%, 43% and 33%; disease-free survival rates were 62%, 45% and 41%, respectively. Pelvic control rates at 2-,5- and 10-years were 77%, 69% and 62%. Unfavorable prognostic factors on univariate analysis for survival were: recurrence extending to the pelvic wall versus central recurrence, early recurrence after surgery, external boost versus brachytherapy boost, low total dose and high age. Only a brachytherapy boost and a long interval between surgery and recurrence were significant on multivariate analysis. Severe complications (> or = grade 3) were seen in 6 patients (17%; actuarial after 5 years, 21%).
Salvage radiotherapy for recurrent cervical carcinoma following surgery may result in 40-50% long-term disease-free survival and an acceptable risk of severe treatment complications, even in patient with recurrences extending to the pelvic wall.
"In patients treated with primary RT who experience a vaginal apex or paravaginal tissue recurrence without pelvic sidewall involvement, salvage rates with radical hysterectomy approach 40% in appropriately-selected patients [26,27]. Patients treated with primary surgery who experience a vaginal cuff recurrence have a similar salvage rate when treated with concurrent RT and cisplatin-based chemotherapy [6,28]. Pelvic exenteration is typically reserved for more extensive pelvic recurrences involving the bladder, lower vagina, and/or rectum and can result in long-term survival in a small percentage of patients [29-32]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
To report outcomes in women with locally recurrent or advanced cervical cancer who received intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IOERT) as a component of therapy.
From 1983 to 2010, 86 patients with locally recurrent (n = 73, 85%) or primary advanced (n = 13, 15%) cervical cancer received IOERT following surgery. Common surgeries included pelvic exenteration (n = 26; 30%) or sidewall resection (n = 22; 26%). The median IOERT dose was 15 Gy (range, 6.25-25 Gy). Sixty-one patients (71%) received perioperative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT; median dose, 45 Gy). Forty-one patients (48%) received perioperative chemotherapy.
Median follow-up was 2.7 years (range, 0.1-25.5 years). Resections were classified as R0 (n = 35, 41%), R1 (n = 30, 35%), or R2 (n = 21, 24%). Cumulative incidences of central (within the IOERT field) and locoregional relapse at 3 years were 23 and 38%, respectively. The 3-year cumulative incidence of distant relapse was 43%. Median survival was 15 months, and 3-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of cause-specific (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were 31 and 25%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, pelvic exenteration (p = 0.02) and perioperative EBRT (p = 0.009) were associated with improved central control in patients with recurrent disease. Recurrence within 6 months of initial therapy was associated with reduced CSS (p = 0.001). Common IOERT-related toxicities included peripheral neuropathy (n = 16), ureteral stenosis (n = 4), and bowel fistula/perforation (n = 4). Eleven of 16 patients with neuropathy required long-term pain medication.
Long-term survival is possible with combined modality therapy including IOERT for advanced cervical cancer. Distant relapse is common, yet a significant number of patients experienced local progression in spite of aggressive treatment. In addition to consideration of disease- and treatment-related morbidity, other factors to be considered when selecting patients for this approach include the time interval from initial therapy to recurrence and whether the patient is able to receive perioperative EBRT and pelvic exenteration in addition to IOERT.
"If the published data are all in accordance to recommend increasing the dose to pelvic nodes by using the results of PET–CT, further studies are necessary to better define the total dose to the para-aortic nodes as they might not be necessary if the main carcinological events are distant metastases. Recurrent cervical carcinoma can also be salvaged with radiotherapy and PET–CT helps in limiting the irradiated volumes, specially to decrease the risk of complications after surgery . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PET-CT plays an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment of gynaecological cancers. In cervix cancer, whilst MRI remains the best imaging technique for initial primary tumor staging, PET-CT has been showed to be a highly sensitive method to determine lymph node status, except in patients with early-stage cervical cancer where PET-CT cannot replace surgical exploration of pelvic lymph nodes. In patients with advanced cervical cancer, PET-CT has the potential of showing lymph node metastasis not only within the pelvis, but also outside the pelvis, more particularly in the para-aortic area. PET-CT has also been described as a useful tool in 3-D-based adaptative brachytherapy. In endometrial cancer, the issues are different, as the recent decade has seen a therapeutic decrease in early-stage disease, especially in postoperative radiation therapy, whilst more advanced disease have been approached with more aggressive treatments, integrating chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy. Lymph node status is also an important issue and PET-Scan may replace lymph node surgical procedure particularly in obese patients.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 09/2010; 96(3):351-5. DOI:10.1016/j.radonc.2010.07.010 · 4.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognosis for recurrent cervical carcinoma following initial surgery is dismal even when aggressive radiotherapy or salvage surgery is used. We retrospectively reviewed hospital records to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of concurrent chemoradiotherapy as a salvage treatment.
From 1999 to 2007, 47 patients received salvage chemoradiotherapy. Involved-field irradiation was delivered at a median dose of 64.8 Gy (range, 36-100.2), including brachytherapy boost in 10 patients. Pelvic re-irradiation was performed in 4 of the 12 women who had a previous history of pelvic radiotherapy. All but one patient received cisplatin-based concomitant chemotherapy during radiotherapy.
The median overall follow-up period was 27 months and for surviving patients was 57 months. The interval between initial surgery and recurrence was 22 months (range, 4-203), and the median recurrent mass size was 4 cm (range, 0.5-11). In 34 patients, recurrent tumors were confined to the pelvis (21 central and 13 peripheral). Grade 3-4 acute hematologic toxicity was the most frequent toxicity and was observed in 29 (62%) women. Five-year actuarial cumulative incidence of severe gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity was 13% and 7%, respectively. Thirty-three patients (70%) showed a complete response and 9 (19%) a partial response following salvage chemoradiation. Five-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 44% and 41%, respectively.
Salvage chemoradiotherapy appears to be a feasible treatment option for women with recurrent cervical carcinoma following surgery. The treatment had a high salvage rate and acceptable late complication rate, despite being associated with substantial acute toxicity.
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