Factors associated with radiation-induced nausea and vomiting in head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy.
ABSTRACT To investigate factors associated with radiation-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) in the setting of head and neck intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).
Forty-three patients treated with IMRT for head and neck cancer between 2002 and 2007 comprise the cohort. The majority (79%) were treated with an accelerated altered fractionation scheme, and concurrent chemotherapy was delivered to 23. A retrospective review of factors associated with nausea was performed.
Eighteen patients (42%) reported grade 1 acute nausea, and seven patients (16%) reported grade 2 nausea. Factors significant for grade 1-2 nausea on univariate analysis included dose to the dorsal vagal complex of the mid-medulla, younger age, use of a low neck field, and Amifostine use. Only young age retained significance on multivariate analysis. High-grade nausea was associated with use of Amifostine (p=0.003) and concurrent chemotherapy (p=0.015).
In addition to previously recognized emetic factors, young age and radiation dose to the dorsal vagal complex of the brainstem may play a role in development of nausea during head and neck IMRT.
- SourceAvailable from: hrcak.srce.hr[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To report recommendations given in the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) International Consensus Conference regarding the use of antiemetics in radiotherapy. A steering committee under MASCC auspice chose panel participants for the guidelines development process on prevention of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced emesis (RIE). Pertinent information from published literature as of March 2004 was reviewed for the guideline process. Both the MASCC level of scientific confidence and level of consensus, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) type of evidence and grade for recommendation were adopted. Total body irradiation is classified at high risk, upper abdomen at moderate, lower thorax, pelvis, cranium (radiosurgery) and craniospinal at low, head and neck, extremities, cranium and breast at minimal risk. The recommendations for the use of antiemetics in radiotherapy are as follows: prophylaxis with a 5-HT3 antagonist in patients at high and moderate risk levels of RIE (+/-dexamethasone in the former group), prophylaxis or rescue with a 5-HT3 antagonist in the low risk group, and rescue with dopamine or a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist in minimal risk level. These recommendations represent a valid tool for prophylaxis and treatment of RIE in clinical practice.Radiotherapy and Oncology 10/2005; 76(3):227-33. · 4.52 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer reduces xerostomia compared with standard RT. To assess potential improvements in broader aspects of quality of life (QOL), we initiated a study of patient-reported QOL and its predictors after IMRT. This was a prospective longitudinal study of head-and-neck cancer patients receiving multisegmental static IMRT. Patients were given a validated xerostomia questionnaire (XQ), and a validated head-and-neck cancer-related QOL questionnaire consisting of four multi-item domains: Eating, Communication, Pain, and Emotion. The Eating domain contains one question (total of six) asking directly about xerostomia. In both questionnaires, higher scores denote worse symptoms or QOL. The questionnaires and measurements of salivary output from the major glands were completed before RT started (pre-RT) and at 3, 6, and 12 months after RT. The association between the QOL scores and patient-, tumor-, and therapy-related factors was assessed using the random effects model. Thirty-six patients participating in the study completed the questionnaires through 12 months. The XQ scores worsened significantly at 3 months compared with the pre-RT scores, but later they improved gradually through 12 months (p = 0.003), in parallel with an increase in the salivary output from the spared salivary glands. The QOL summary scores were stable between the baseline (pre-RT) and 3 months after RT scores. Patients receiving postoperative RT (whose pre-RT questionnaires were taken a few weeks after surgery) tended to have improved scores after RT, reflecting the subsidence of acute postoperative sequelae, compared with a tendency toward worsened scores in patients receiving definitive RT. After 3 months, statistically significant improvement was noted in the summary QOL scores for all patients, through 12 months after RT (p = 0.01). The salivary flow rates, tumor doses, mean oral cavity dose, age, gender, sites or stages of tumor, surgery, and use of chemotherapy were not associated with the QOL scores at any point. The mean dose to the parotid glands correlated with the QOL scores at 3 months (p = 0.05) but not at other post-RT periods. The XQ and QOL summary scores did not correlate before RT but were significantly correlated at each post-RT point (p < 0.01), with a linear correlation coefficient (r) of 0.59, 0.72, and 0.67 at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. At these points, the XQ scores also correlated significantly with the scores of each of the individual QOL domains (p < or = 0.01), including the domains Pain and Emotion, which did not contain any xerostomia-related question. After parotid-sparing IMRT, a statistically significant correlation was noted between patient-reported xerostomia and each of the domains of QOL: Eating, Communication, Pain, and Emotion. Both xerostomia and QOL scores improved significantly over time during the first year after therapy. These results suggest that the efforts to improve xerostomia using IMRT may yield improvements in broad aspects of QOL.International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 09/2003; 57(1):61-70. · 4.52 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To report the clinical outcome of patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Between 1998 and 2004, 36 patients with malignancies of the sinonasal region were treated with IMRT. Thirty-two patients (89%) were treated in the postoperative setting after gross total resection. Treatment plans were designed to provide a dose of 70 Gy to 95% or more of the gross tumor volume (GTV) and 60 Gy to 95% or more of the clinical tumor volume (CTV) while sparing neighboring critical structures including the optic chiasm, optic nerves, eyes, and brainstem. The primary sites were: 13 ethmoid sinus, 10 maxillary sinus, 7 nasal cavity, and 6 other. Histology was: 12 squamous cell, 7 esthesioneuroblastoma, 5 adenoid cystic, 5 undifferentiated, 5 adenocarcinoma, and 2 other. Median follow-up was 51 months among surviving patients (range, 9-82 months). The 2-year and 5-year estimates of local control were 62% and 58%, respectively. One patient developed isolated distant metastasis, and none developed isolated regional failure. The 5-year rates of disease-free and overall survival were 55% and 45%, respectively. The incidence of ocular toxicity was minimal with no patients reporting decreased vision. Late complications included xerophthalmia (1 patient), lacrimal stenosis (1 patient), and cataract (1 patient). Although IMRT for malignancies of the sinonasal region does not appear to lead to significant improvements in disease control, the low incidence of complications is encouraging.International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 02/2007; 67(1):151-7. · 4.52 Impact Factor