Lymphocyte subsets and the role of TH1/TH2 balance in stressed chronic pain patients.
ABSTRACT The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and fibromyalgia (FM) are chronic pain syndromes occurring in highly stressed individuals. Despite the known connection between the nervous system and immune cells, information on distribution of lymphocyte subsets under stress and pain conditions is limited.
We performed a comparative study in 15 patients with CRPS type I, 22 patients with FM and 37 age- and sex-matched healthy controls and investigated the influence of pain and stress on lymphocyte number, subpopulations and the Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in T lymphocytes.
Lymphocyte numbers did not differ between groups. Quantitative analyses of lymphocyte subpopulations showed a significant reduction of cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocytes in both CRPS (p < 0.01) and FM (p < 0.05) patients as compared with healthy controls. Additionally, CRPS patients were characterized by a lower percentage of IL-2-producing T cell subpopulations reflecting a diminished Th1 response in contrast to no changes in the Th2 cytokine profile.
Future studies are warranted to answer whether such immunological changes play a pathogenetic role in CRPS and FM or merely reflect the consequences of a pain-induced neurohumoral stress response, and whether they contribute to immunosuppression in stressed chronic pain patients.
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ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic musculoskeletal pain syndrome characterized by generalized body pain, hyperalgesia and other functional and emotional comorbidities, is a challenging process hindered by symptom heterogeneity and clinical overlap with other disorders. No objective diagnostic method exists at present. The aim of this study was to identify changes in miRNA expression profiles (miRNome) of these patients for the development of a quantitative diagnostic method of FM. In addition, knowledge of FM patient miRNomes should lead to a deeper understanding of the etiology and/or symptom severity of this complex disease. Genome-wide expression profiling of miRNAs was assessed in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) of FM patients (N=11) and population-age-matched controls (N=10) using human v16-miRbase 3D-Gene microarrays (Toray Industries, Japan). Selected miRNAs from the screen were further validated by RT-qPCR. Participating patients were long term sufferers (over 10 years) diagnosed by more than one specialist under 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria. Microarray analysis of FM patient PBMCs evidenced a marked downregulation of hsa-miR223-3p, hsa-miR451a, hsa-miR338-3p, hsa-miR143-3p, hsa-miR145-5p and hsa-miR-21-5p (4-fold or more). All but the mildest inhibited miRNA, hsa-miR-21-5p, were validated by RT-qPCR. Globally, 20% of the miRNAs analyzed (233/1212) showed downregulation of at least 2-fold in patients. This might indicate a general de-regulation of the miRNA synthetic pathway in FM. No significant correlations between miRNA inhibition and FM cardinal symptoms could be identified. However, the patient with the lowest score for mental fatigue coincided with the mildest inhibition in four of the five miRNAs associated with the FM-group. We propose a signature of five strikingly downregulated miRNAs (hsa-miR223-3p, hsa-miR451a, hsa-miR338-3p, hsa-miR143-3p and hsa-miR145-5p) to be used as biomarkers of FM. Validation in larger study groups is required before the results can be transferred to the clinic.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0121903. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121903 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background BALB/cJ is a strain susceptible to stress and extremely susceptible to a defective hedonic impact in response to chronic stressors. The strain offers much promise as an animal model for the study of stress related disorders. We present a comparative hippocampal gene expression study on the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress on BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. Affymetrix MOE 430 was used to measure hippocampal gene expression from 16 animals of two different strains (BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J) of both sexes and subjected to either unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) or no stress. Differences were statistically evaluated through supervised and unsupervised linear modelling and using Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis (WGCNA). In order to gain further understanding into mechanisms related to stress response, we cross-validated our results with a parallel study from the GENDEP project using WGCNA in a meta-analysis design. Results The effects of UCMS are visible through Principal Component Analysis which highlights the stress sensitivity of the BALB/cJ strain. A number of genes and gene networks related to stress response were uncovered including the Creb1 gene. WGCNA and pathway analysis revealed a gene network centered on Nfkb1. Results from the meta-analysis revealed a highly significant gene pathway centred on the Ubiquitin C (Ubc) gene. All pathways uncovered are associated with inflammation and immune response. Conclusions The study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the response to adverse environment in an animal model using a GxE design. Stress-related differences were visible at the genomic level through PCA analysis highlighting the high sensitivity of BALB/cJ animals to environmental stressors. Several candidate genes and gene networks reported are associated with inflammation and neurogenesis and could serve to inform candidate gene selection in human studies and provide additional insight into the pathology of Major Depressive Disorder. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1431-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.BMC Genomics 04/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1431-6 · 4.04 Impact Factor
- Reumatismo 60 Suppl 1:1-2.