Sequence variants in the RNF212 gene associate with genome-wide recombination rate.
ABSTRACT The genome-wide recombination rate varies between individuals, but the mechanism controlling this variation in humans has remained elusive. A genome-wide search identified sequence variants in the 4p16.3 region correlated with recombination rate in both males and females. These variants are located in the RNF212 gene, a putative ortholog of the ZHP-3 gene that is essential for recombinations and chiasma formation in Caenorhabditis elegans. It is noteworthy that the haplotype formed by two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the highest recombination rate in males is associated with a low recombination rate in females. Consequently, if the frequency of the haplotype changes, the average recombination rate will increase for one sex and decrease for the other, but the sex-averaged recombination rate of the population can stay relatively constant.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide and has primitive sex chromosomes controlling sex determination in this trioecious species. The papaya genome was recently sequenced because of its agricultural importance, unique biological features, and successful application of transgenic papaya for resistance to papaya ringspot virus. As a part of the genome sequencing project, we constructed a BAC-based physical map using a high information-content fingerprinting approach to assist whole genome shotgun sequence assembly. The physical map consists of 963 contigs, representing 9.4x genome equivalents, and was integrated with the genetic map and genome sequence using BAC end sequences and a sequence-tagged high-density genetic map. The estimated genome coverage of the physical map is about 95.8%, while 72.4% of the genome was aligned to the genetic map. A total of 1,181 high quality overgo (overlapping oligonucleotide) probes representing conserved sequences in Arabidopsis and genetically mapped loci in Brassica were anchored on the physical map, which provides a foundation for comparative genomics in the Brassicales. The integrated genetic and physical map aligned with the genome sequence revealed recombination hotspots as well as regions suppressed for recombination across the genome, particularly on the recently evolved sex chromosomes. Suppression of recombination spread to the adjacent region of the male specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY), and recombination rates were recovered gradually and then exceeded the genome average. Recombination hotspots were observed at about 10 Mb away on both sides of the MSY, showing 7-fold increase compared with the genome wide average, demonstrating the dynamics of recombination of the sex chromosomes. A BAC-based physical map of papaya was constructed and integrated with the genetic map and genome sequence. The integrated map facilitated the draft genome assembly, and is a valuable resource for comparative genomics and map-based cloning of agronomically and economically important genes and for sex chromosome research.BMC Genomics 09/2009; 10:371. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Over the last decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become the standard tool for gene discovery in human disease research. While debate continues about how to get the most out of these studies and on occasion about how much value these studies really provide, it is clear that many of the strongest results have come from large-scale mega-consortia and/or meta-analyses that combine data from up to dozens of studies and tens of thousands of subjects. While such analyses are becoming more and more common, statistical methods have lagged somewhat behind. There are good meta-analysis methods available, but even when they are carefully and optimally applied there remain some unresolved statistical issues. This article systematically reviews the GWAS meta-analysis literature, highlighting methodology and software options and reviewing methods that have been used in real studies. We illustrate differences among methods using a case study. We also discuss some of the unresolved issues and potential future directions.Nucleic Acids Research 01/2012; 40(9):3777-84. · 8.03 Impact Factor
Article: Detecting sequence polymorphisms associated with meiotic recombination hotspots in the human genome.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Meiotic recombination events tend to cluster into narrow spans of a few kilobases long, called recombination hotspots. Such hotspots are not conserved between human and chimpanzee and vary between different human ethnic groups. At the same time, recombination hotspots are heritable. Previous studies showed instances where differences in recombination rate could be associated with sequence polymorphisms. In this work we developed a novel computational approach, LDsplit, to perform a large-scale association study of recombination hotspots with genetic polymorphisms. LDsplit was able to correctly predict the association between the FG11 SNP and the DNA2 hotspot observed by sperm typing. Extensive simulation demonstrated the accuracy of LDsplit under various conditions. Applying LDsplit to human chromosome 6, we found that for a significant fraction of hotspots, there is an association between variations in intensity of historical recombination and sequence polymorphisms. From flanking regions of the SNPs output by LDsplit we identified a conserved 11-mer motif GGNGGNAGGGG, whose complement partially matches 13-mer CCNCCNTNNCCNC, a critical motif for the regulation of recombination hotspots. Our result suggests that computational approaches based on historical recombination events are likely to be more powerful than previously anticipated. The putative associations we identified may be a promising step toward uncovering the mechanisms of recombination hotspots.Genome biology 10/2010; 11(10):R103. · 6.63 Impact Factor