Inside-out signaling regulation of the beta2-integrin leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) by different cytoplasmic proteins, including 14-3-3 proteins, is essential for adhesion and migration of immune cells. Here, we identify a new pathway for the regulation of LFA-1 activity by Cbl-b, an adapter molecule and ubiquitin ligase that modulates several signaling pathways. Cbl-b-/- mice displayed increased macrophage recruitment in thioglycollate-induced peritonitis, which was attributed to Cbl-b deficiency in macrophages, as assessed by bone marrow chimera experiments. In vitro, Cbl-b-/- bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes (BMDMs) displayed increased adhesion to endothelial cells. Activation of LFA-1 in Cbl-b-deficient cells was responsible for their increased endothelial adhesion in vitro and peritoneal recruitment in vivo, as the phenotype of Cbl-b deficiency was reversed in Cbl-b-/-LFA-1-/- mice. Consistently, LFA-1-mediated adhesion of BMDM to ICAM-1 but not VLA-4-mediated adhesion to VCAM-1 was enhanced by Cbl-b deficiency. Cbl-b deficiency resulted in increased phosphorylation of T758 in the beta2-chain of LFA-1 and thereby in enhanced association of 14-3-3beta protein with the beta2-chain, leading to activation of LFA-1. Consistently, disruption of the 14-3-3/beta2-integrin interaction abrogated the enhanced ICAM-1 adhesion of Cbl-b-/- BMDMs. In conclusion, Cbl-b deficiency activates LFA-1 and LFA-1-mediated inflammatory cell recruitment by stimulating the interaction between the LFA-1 beta-chain and 14-3-3 proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection or inflammation requires multiple adhesive events. Although numerous players promoting leukocyte-endothelial interactions have been characterized, functionally important endogenous inhibitors of leukocyte adhesion have not been identified. Here we describe the endothelially derived secreted molecule Del-1 (developmental endothelial locus-1) as an anti-adhesive factor that interferes with the integrin LFA-1-dependent leukocyte-endothelial adhesion. Endothelial Del-1 deficiency increased LFA-1-dependent leukocyte adhesion in vitro and in vivo. Del-1-/- mice displayed significantly higher neutrophil accumulation in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation in vivo, which was reversed in Del-1/LFA-1 double-deficient mice. Thus, Del-1 is an endogenous inhibitor of inflammatory cell recruitment and could provide a basis for targeting leukocyte-endothelial interactions in disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of cells to attach to each other and to the extracellular matrix is of pivotal significance for the formation of functional organs and for the distribution of cells in the body. Several molecular families of proteins are involved in adhesion, and recent work has substantially improved our understanding of their structures and functions. Also, these molecules are now being targeted in the fight against disease. However, less is known about how their activity is regulated. It is apparent that among the different classes of adhesion molecules, the integrin family of adhesion receptors is unique in the sense that they constitute a large group of widely distributed receptors, they are unusually complex and most importantly their activities are strictly regulated from the inside of the cell. The activity regulation is achieved by a complex interplay of cytoskeletal proteins, protein kinases, phosphatases, small G proteins and adaptor proteins. Obviously, we are only in the beginning of our understanding of how the integrins function, but already now fascinating details have become apparent. Here, we describe recent progress in the field, concentrating mainly on mechanistical and structural studies of integrin regulation. Due to the large number of articles dealing with integrins, we focus on what we think are the most exciting and rewarding directions of contemporary research on cell adhesion and integrins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested the efficacy of CD8+ T cells lacking the Cbl-b gene against a panel of mammary tumor lines with different intrinsic sensitivities to T cells. Mice bearing established tumors expressing an ovalbumin-tagged version of HER-2/neu underwent adoptive transfer with Cbl-b-replete or -null CD8+ T cells from OT-I T cell receptor transgenic donor mice. In general, Cbl-b-null OT-I cells showed enhanced expansion, persistence, and capacity for tumor infiltration. This resulted in markedly enhanced efficacy against two tumor lines that normally demonstrate complete (NOP21) or partial (NOP23) regression. Moreover, a third tumor line (NOP6) that normally demonstrates progressive disease underwent complete regression in response to Cbl-b-null OT-I cells. However, a fourth tumor line (NOP18) was resistant to Cbl-b-null OT-I cells owing to a profound barrier to lymphocyte infiltration. Thus, Cbl-b-null CD8+ T cells are generally more efficacious but are nonetheless unable to mediate curative responses against all tumor phenotypes.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 05/2009; 58(11):1865-75. DOI:10.1007/s00262-009-0698-3 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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