Interleukin 15 expression in the CNS: Blockade of its activity prevents glial activation after an inflammatory injury
ABSTRACT Although reactive glia formation after neuronal degeneration or traumatic damage is one of the hallmarks of central nervous system (CNS) injury, we have little information on the signals that direct activation of resting glia. IL-15, a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in regulating the response of T and B cells, may be also key for the regulation of early inflammatory events in the nervous system. IL-15 was expressed in the CNS, most abundantly in cerebellum and hippocampus, mainly in astrocytes and in some projection neurons. Using a rodent model of acute inflammatory injury [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection], we found enhanced expression of IL-15 in both reactive astroglia and microglia, soon after CNS injury. Blockade of IL-15 activity with an antibody to the cytokine, reversed activation of both glial types, suggesting that IL-15 has a major role in the generation of gliotic tissue and in the regulation of neuroimmune responses. Because IL-15 appears to modulate the inflammatory environment acutely generated after CNS injury, regulating IL-15 expression seems a clear antiinflammatory therapy to improve the outcome of neurodegenerative diseases and CNS trauma.
SourceAvailable from: Donald Royall[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL-15), a pro-inflammatory cytokine has been studied as a possible marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however its exact role in neuro-inflammation or the pathogenesis AD is not well understood yet. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) approach was used to examine the relationship between serum IL-15 levels and AD in a well characterized AD cohort, the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium (TARCC). Instead of categorical diagnoses, we used two latent construct d (for dementia) and g' (for cognitive impairments not contributing to functional impairments) in our analysis. The results showed that the serum IL-15 level has significant effects on cognition, exclusively mediated by latent construct d and g'. Contrasting directions of association lead us to speculate that IL-15's effects in AD are mediated through functional networks as d scores have been previously found to be specifically related to default mode network (DMN). Our finding warrants the need for further research to determine the changes in structural and functional networks corresponding to serum based biomarkers levels.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117282. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117282 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The inflammatory mediator lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to induce acute gliosis in neonatal mice. However, the progressive effects on the murine neurodevelopmental program over the week that follows systemic inflammation are not known. Thus, we investigated the effects of repeated LPS administration in the first postnatal week in mice, a condition mimicking sepsis in late preterm infants, on the developing central nervous system (CNS). Systemic inflammation was induced by daily intraperitoneal administration (i.p.) of LPS (6 mg/kg) in newborn mice from postnatal day (PND) 4 to PND6. The effects on neurodevelopment were examined by staining the white matter and neurons with Luxol Fast Blue and Cresyl Violet, respectively. The inflammatory response was assessed by quantifying the expression/activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, high mobility group box (HMGB)-1, and autotaxin (ATX). In addition, B6 CX3CR1(gfp/+) mice combined with cryo-immunofluorescence were used to determine the acute, delayed, and lasting effects on myelination, microglia, and astrocytes. LPS administration led to acute body and brain weight loss as well as overt structural changes in the brain such as cerebellar hypoplasia, neuronal loss/shrinkage, and delayed myelination. The impaired myelination was associated with alterations in the proliferation and differentiation of NG2 progenitor cells early after LPS administration, rather than with excessive phagocytosis by CNS myeloid cells. In addition to disruptions in brain architecture, a robust inflammatory response to LPS was observed. Quantification of inflammatory biomarkers revealed decreased expression of ATX with concurrent increases in HMGB1, TLR-4, and MMP-9 expression levels. Acute astrogliosis (GFAP(+) cells) in the brain parenchyma and at the microvasculature interface together with parenchymal microgliosis (CX3CR1(+) cells) were also observed. These changes preceded the migration/proliferation of CX3CR1(+) cells around the vessels at later time points and the subsequent loss of GFAP(+) astrocytes. Collectively, our study has uncovered a complex innate inflammatory reaction and associated structural changes in the brains of neonatal mice challenged peripherally with LPS. These findings may explain some of the neurobehavioral abnormalities that develop following neonatal sepsis.Journal of Neuroinflammation 04/2015; 12(1):82. DOI:10.1186/s12974-015-0299-3 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The study of neurogenesis during chronic neurodegeneration is crucial in order to understand the intrinsic repair mechanisms of the brain, and key to designing therapeutic strategies. In this study, using an experimental model of progressive chronic neurodegeneration, murine prion disease, we define the temporal dynamics of the generation, maturation and integration of new neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, using dual pulse-chase, multicolour γ-retroviral tracing, transmission electron microscopy and patch-clamp. We found increased neurogenesis during the progression of prion disease, which partially counteracts the effects of chronic neurodegeneration, as evidenced by blocking neurogenesis with cytosine arabinoside, and helps to preserve the hippocampal function. Evidence obtained from human post-mortem samples, of both variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Alzheimer's disease patients, also suggests increased neurogenic activity. These results open a new avenue into the exploration of the effects and regulation of neurogenesis during chronic neurodegeneration, and offer a new model to reproduce the changes observed in human neurodegenerative diseases.Brain 06/2014; DOI:10.1093/brain/awu155 · 10.23 Impact Factor