Identification of target antigens of antiendothelial cell antibodies in healthy individuals: A proteomic approach
ABSTRACT In order to identify target antigens of anti-endothelial cell (anti-EC) antibodies (AECA) in healthy individuals, we have used a proteomic approach combining 2-DE and immunoblotting. Whole cell protein extracts obtained from human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC) cultures were used as a source of antigens. Serum IgG from 12 healthy blood donors were tested at a concentration of 200 microg/mL. Targeted spots were identified by MS. The HUVEC proteome was composed of 884 protein spots. Among these, 61 +/- 25.8 (mean +/- SD) spots were recognized by serum IgG from healthy individuals, with marked differences from one individual to another. Among these spots, 11 were recognized by serum IgG from all healthy individuals tested. These spots corresponded to six different proteins with several spots corresponding to different isoforms of the same protein. Target antigens were: cytoskeletal proteins (beta-actin, alpha-tubulin, and vimentin); glycolytic enzymes (glucose-3-phosphate-deshydrogenase and alpha-enolase); and prolyl-4-hydroxylase beta subunit, a member of the disulfide isomerase family. This study shows that the repertoire of IgG AECA is heterogeneous among healthy individuals. IgG from all of the healthy individuals tested recognized a restricted set of highly conserved ubiquitous proteins playing key roles in cell biology and maintenance of homeostasis.
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ABSTRACT: Antiendothelial cell antibodies (AECA) have been detected in healthy individuals, as well as in autoimmune and systemic inflammatory diseases, including systemic vasculitides. AECA have been reported in large vessel vasculitides such as giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis; medium-sized vessel vasculitides, such as polyarteritis nodosa related to hepatitis B virus infection and Kawasaki disease; and small-sized vessel vasculitides, such as Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, and Henoch-Schonlein purpura. In Takayasu arteritis and antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody-positive vasculitides, AECA have been reported to correlate with disease activity. A cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) represent one of the reference techniques for AECA detection, although flow cytometry and immunobloting have also been proposed. AECA might contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic vasculitides and vasculitis-associated diseases through (1) activation of endothelial cells (EC), (2) direct cytotoxic effect due to complement-dependent cytotoxicity or indirect cytotoxic effect secondary to antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, (3) induction of coagulation, (4) induction of apoptosis through the binding of phospholipids or heat-shock protein 60, and (5) induction of EC activation. None of the identified target antigens of AECA is specific for EC, and EC-specific target antigens of AECA remain to be identified in systemic vasculitides.Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology 02/2008; 35(1-2):59-65. DOI:10.1007/s12016-007-8069-3 · 4.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) are detectable in a heterogenous group of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. These antibodies have also been detected in healthy individuals. Nevertheless, most of the literature focuses on AECA in pathological conditions and their targets and functions in healthy individuals remain to be clarified. Recently, proteome-based technologies have been successfully used for the identification of antigens targeted by natural AECA. Thus, it has been shown that IgG AECA can be detected in sera from healthy individuals that recognize a restricted set of proteins among a whole protein extract of umbilical vein endothelial cells. These proteins correspond to ubiquitous proteins belonging to highly conserved protein families and exerting pivotal roles in cell physiology, including cytoskeletal proteins (beta actin, vimentin, alpha tubulin) and glycolytic enzymes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-deshydrogenase and alpha-enolase). As reported for other types of natural autoantibodies, natural AECA could exert anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic functions. In addition, they could play a role in the control of EC activation.Autoimmunity Reviews 07/2008; 7(6):426-30. DOI:10.1016/j.autrev.2008.03.010 · 7.10 Impact Factor
Article: Hashimoto's encephalopathy.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a controversial neurological disorder that comprises a heterogenous group of neurological symptoms that manifest in patients with high titers of antithyroid antibodies. Clinical manifestations of HE may include encephalopathic features such as seizures, behavioral and psychiatric manifestations, movement disorders, and coma. Although it has been linked to cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis or thyroid dysfunction, the most common immunological feature of HE is the presence of high titers of antithyroglobulin or anti-TPO (antimicrosomal) antibodies. At present, it is unclear whether antithyroid antibodies represent an immune epiphenomenon in a subset of patients with encephalopathic processes or they are really associated with pathogenic mechanisms of the disorder. The significance of classifying encephalopathies under the term HE will be determined in the future once the relevance of the role of antithyroid antibodies is demonstrated or dismissed by more detailed experimental and immunopathological studies. The responsiveness of HE to steroids or other therapies such as plasmapheresis supports the hypothesis that this is a disorder that involves immune pathogenic mechanisms. Further controlled studies of the use of steroids, plasmapheresis, or immunosuppressant medications are needed in the future to prove the concept of the pathogenic role of antithyroid antibodies in HE.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 11/2008; 1142:254-65. DOI:10.1196/annals.1444.018 · 4.31 Impact Factor