Normalization of B cell counts and subpopulations after antiretroviral therapy in chronic HIV disease.
ABSTRACT Untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease leads to abnormalities in all major lymphocyte populations, including CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and B cells. However, little is known regarding the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-induced decrease in HIV viremia on B cell numbers and subpopulations.
We conducted a longitudinal study to evaluate changes in B cell numbers and subpopulations that occur during the course of 12 months of effective ART in a group of individuals with chronic HIV infection.
ART-induced decrease in HIV viremia was associated with a significant increase in B cell counts, similar to increases in CD4(+) T cell counts yet distinct from the lack of increase in CD8(+) T cells. The increase in B cell counts was accompanied by a significant decrease in the frequency of apoptosis-prone B cell subpopulations, namely mature activated and immature transitional B cells, which are overrepresented in untreated HIV disease. The increase in B cell counts was reflected by a significant increase in naive and resting memory B cells, both of which represent populations that are essential for generating adequate humoral immunity.
Normalization of B cell counts and subpopulations may help to explain the improvement in humoral immunity reported to occur after an ART-induced decrease in HIV viremia.
- SourceAvailable from: Carlo Torti[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alterations of B cell subpopulations have been described up to date as characterizing advanced stage of HIV-1 infection. However, whether such defects are relevant in subjects with a preserved number of CD4⁺ T cells (>350 cells/μL) is unclear. In a cross-sectional study, we investigated if signs of B cells exhaustion and impaired viral immune surveillance are present in a cohort of 43 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients with preserved CD4⁺ T cell counts (>350 cells/μL) and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) untreated. A dramatic expansion of exhausted tissue-like memory B cells (CD10⁻CD21(low)CD27⁻) was observed. B cells alteration was related to an increase in Torque teno virus (TTV) load, used as surrogate marker of immune function. Successfully HAART-treated patients showed normalization of B cell subpopulations frequency and TTV load. These results provide new insights on B cell in HIV-1 infection and show that development of B cell abnormalities precedes CD4⁺ T cell decline.Clinical and Developmental Immunology 01/2012; 2012:829584. DOI:10.1155/2012/829584 · 2.93 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A central, yet unresolved issue in the pathogenesis of HIV disease is the mechanism of antibody perturbation. In this study, HIV-specific memory B-cells were quantified in groups of infected subjects and compared with memory responses to other antigens and antibody titers. HIV-specific memory B-cell responses were vigorous in individuals with CD4(+) T-cell counts >350/microl and weak or undetectable in subjects with CD4(+) T-cell numbers <200/microl. Memory B-cell loss was permanent, because antiretroviral therapy failed to restore HIV-specific memory responses while influenza- and tetanus toxoid-specific memory B-cells remained unaffected or recovered. Antibody titers to Gag strongly correlated with memory B-cell frequencies. In contrast, Env-specific antibodies were maintained in advanced disease despite low or undetectable levels of memory B-cells. These results provide a potential mechanism by which destruction of HIV-specific CD4(+) T-cells affects the humoral immune response against HIV and compromises the ability to maintain an effective antibody response.Virology 12/2009; 397(1):7-13. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2009.11.003 · 3.28 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Stimulation through TLR represents a new therapeutic approach for enhancing Ab responses to vaccination. Considering that Ab responses are decreased in HIV disease and that B cells express TLR9 and respond to TLR9 agonists, we investigated the responsiveness of B cell subpopulations from HIV-infected and uninfected individuals to the TLR9 agonist CpG oligonucleotide type B (CpG-B) in the presence and absence of BCR ligation and T cell help (CD40L). CpG-B was equally effective in stimulating the proliferation of naive B cells of HIV-infected individuals and HIV-negative individuals, and, when combined with BCR and CD40 ligation, cytokine secretion by naive B cells was also comparable in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. In contrast, CD27(+) memory/activated B cells of HIV-infected individuals with active disease were less responsive to CpG-B in terms of proliferation and cytokine secretion when compared with CD27(+) B cells of HIV-negative and HIV-infected individuals whose viremia was controlled by antiretroviral therapy. These findings suggest that despite abnormalities in memory B cells of HIV-infected individuals with active disease, naive B cells of HIV-infected individuals, irrespective of disease status, can respond to TLR9 agonists and that the incorporation of such agents in vaccine formulations may enhance their Ab responses to vaccination.The Journal of Immunology 08/2008; 181(2):1199-206. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.181.2.1199 · 5.36 Impact Factor