Transmyocardial revascularization to enhance myocardial vasculogenesis and hemodynamic function.
ABSTRACT A significant number of patients have coronary artery disease that is not amenable to traditional revascularization. Prospective, randomized clinical trials have demonstrated therapeutic benefits with transmyocardial laser revascularization in this cohort. The molecular mechanisms underlying this therapy, however, are poorly understood. The focus of this study was evaluation of the proposed vasculogenic mechanisms involved in transmyocardial laser revascularization.
Male Yorkshire pigs (30-35 kg, n = 25) underwent left thoracotomy and placement of ameroid constrictors around the proximal left circumflex coronary artery. During the next 4 weeks, a well-defined region of myocardial ischemia developed, and the animals underwent a redo left thoracotomy. The animals were randomly assigned to sham treatment (thoracotomy only, control, n = 11) or transmyocardial laser revascularization of hibernating myocardium with a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser (n = 14). After an additional 4 weeks, the animals underwent median sternotomy, echocardiographic analysis of wall motion, and hemodynamic analysis with an ascending aortic flow probe and pulmonary artery catheter. The hearts were explanted for molecular analysis.
Molecular analysis demonstrated statistically significant increases in the proangiogenic proteins nuclear factor kappaB (42 +/- 27 intensity units vs 591 +/- 383 intensity units, P = .03) and angiopoietin 1 (0 +/- 0 intensity units vs 241 +/- 87 intensity units, P = .003) relative to sham control values with transmyocardial laser revascularization within the ischemic myocardium. There were also increases in vasculogenesis (18.8 +/- 8.7 vessels/high-power field vs 31.4 +/- 10.2 vessels/high-power field, P = .02), and perfusion (0.028 +/- 0.009 microm3 blood/microm3 tissue vs 0.044 +/- 0.004 microm3 blood/microm3 tissue, P = .01). Enhanced myocardial viability was demonstrated by increased myofilament density (40.7 +/- 8.5 cardiomyocytes/high-power field vs 50.8 +/- 7.5 cardiomyocytes/high-power field, P = .03). Regional myocardial function within the treated territory demonstrated augmented contractility. Global hemodynamic function was significantly improved relative to the control group with transmyocardial laser revascularization (cardiac output 2.1 +/- 0.2 L/min vs 2.7 +/- 0.2 L/min, P = .007, mixed venous oxygen saturation 64.7% +/- 3.6% vs 76.1% +/- 3.4%, P = .008).
Transmyocardial laser revascularization with the holmium-YAG laser enhances perfusion, with resultant improvement in myocardial contractility.
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ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to demonstrate that transmyocardial laser revascularization of hypoperfused myocardium improves regional and global myocardial function. Cine magnetic resonance imaging was used to monitor regional wall thickening (in millimeters) and cardiac output (in milliliters per kilogram per minute). Cine magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and 8 weeks after transmyocardial laser revascularization was applied to the hypoperfused lateral wall of the left ventricle (target area) in a porcine model (n = 9, transmyocardial laser revascularization group). A second group of animals was left untreated (n = 8, control group). Regional wall thickening in the target area improved after transmyocardial laser revascularization (0.7 +/- 0.3 mm to 3.7 +/- 1.9 mm, P <.02) and was significantly higher (P <.01) after transmyocardial laser revascularization than in the control group, in which it did not improve (0.5 +/- 0.6 mm to 0.5 +/- 1.2 mm). Accordingly, cardiac output and microsphere-derived myocardial blood flows were significantly higher than in the control group (P <.01), and the amount of triphenyltetrazolium chloride-stained myocardium was lower (P <.01). Cine magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates improved global and regional myocardial function after transmyocardial laser revascularization in a porcine model.Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 09/2004; 128(3):391-5. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) has provided symptomatic relief of angina over the short term, the long-term efficacy of the procedure is unknown. Angina symptoms as assessed independently by angina class and the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) were prospectively collected up to 7 years after TMR. Seventy-eight patients with severe angina not amenable to conventional revascularization were treated with a CO(2) laser. Their mean age was 61+/-10 years at the time of treatment. Preoperatively, 66% had unstable angina, 73% had had >/=1 myocardial infarction, 93% had undergone >/=1 CABG, 42% had >/=1 PTCA, 76% were in angina class IV, and 24% were in angina class III. Their average pre-TMR angina class was 3.7+/-0.4. After an average of 5 years (and up to 7 years) of follow-up, the average angina class was significantly improved to 1.6+/-1 (P=0.0001). This was unchanged from the 1.5+/-1 average angina class at 1 year postoperatively (P=NS). There was a marked redistribution according to angina class, with 81% of the patients in class II or better, and 17% of the patients had no angina 5 years after TMR. A decrease of >/=2 angina classes was considered significant, and by this criterion, 68% of the patients had successful long-term angina relief. The angina class results were further confirmed with the SAQ; 5-year SAQ scores revealed an average improvement of 170% over the baseline results. The long-term efficacy of TMR persists for >/=5 years. TMR with CO(2) laser as sole therapy for severe disabling angina provides significant long-term angina relief.Circulation 09/2001; 104(12 Suppl 1):I81-4. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We sought to assess the safety and efficacy of transmyocardial revascularization combined with coronary artery bypass grafting in patients not amenable to complete revascularization by coronary bypass alone. A total of 263 patients whose standard of care was coronary artery bypass grafting and who had one or more ischemic areas not amenable to bypass grafting were prospectively randomized to receive coronary bypass of suitable vessels plus transmyocardial revascularization to areas not graftable (n = 132) or coronary bypass alone with nongraftable areas left unrevascularized (n = 131). Group preoperative demographics and operative characteristics were similar. The operative mortality rate after coronary bypass/transmyocardial revascularization was 1.5% (2/132) versus 7.6% (10/131) after coronary bypass alone (P =.02). Patients undergoing both coronary bypass and transmyocardial revascularization required less postoperative inotropic support (30% vs 55%, P =.0001) and had a trend toward fewer insertions of intra-aortic balloon pumps (4% vs 8%, P =.13) than did patients having coronary bypass alone. Multivariable predictors of operative mortality were coronary artery bypass alone (odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-25.7; P =.04) and increased age (odds ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1. 0-1.2; P =.03). One-year Kaplan-Meier survival (95% vs 89%, P =.05) and freedom from major adverse cardiac events defined as death or myocardial infarction (92% vs 86%, P =.09) favored the combination of coronary bypass and transmyocardial revascularization. Baseline to 12-month improvement in angina and exercise treadmill scores was similar between groups. In a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial, transmyocardial revascularization combined with coronary artery bypass grafting in patients not amenable to complete revascularization by coronary bypass alone was safe; however, angina relief and exercise treadmill improvement were indistinguishable between groups at 12 months of follow-up. Operative and 1-year survival benefits observed after adjunctive transmyocardial revascularization require confirmation by a larger validation study, which is ongoing.Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 04/2000; 119(3):540-9. · 3.53 Impact Factor