Transmyocardial revascularization to enhance myocardial vasculogenesis and hemodynamic function.

Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery (Impact Factor: 3.41). 03/2008; 135(2):283-91, 291.e1; discussion 291. DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2007.09.043
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A significant number of patients have coronary artery disease that is not amenable to traditional revascularization. Prospective, randomized clinical trials have demonstrated therapeutic benefits with transmyocardial laser revascularization in this cohort. The molecular mechanisms underlying this therapy, however, are poorly understood. The focus of this study was evaluation of the proposed vasculogenic mechanisms involved in transmyocardial laser revascularization.
Male Yorkshire pigs (30-35 kg, n = 25) underwent left thoracotomy and placement of ameroid constrictors around the proximal left circumflex coronary artery. During the next 4 weeks, a well-defined region of myocardial ischemia developed, and the animals underwent a redo left thoracotomy. The animals were randomly assigned to sham treatment (thoracotomy only, control, n = 11) or transmyocardial laser revascularization of hibernating myocardium with a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser (n = 14). After an additional 4 weeks, the animals underwent median sternotomy, echocardiographic analysis of wall motion, and hemodynamic analysis with an ascending aortic flow probe and pulmonary artery catheter. The hearts were explanted for molecular analysis.
Molecular analysis demonstrated statistically significant increases in the proangiogenic proteins nuclear factor kappaB (42 +/- 27 intensity units vs 591 +/- 383 intensity units, P = .03) and angiopoietin 1 (0 +/- 0 intensity units vs 241 +/- 87 intensity units, P = .003) relative to sham control values with transmyocardial laser revascularization within the ischemic myocardium. There were also increases in vasculogenesis (18.8 +/- 8.7 vessels/high-power field vs 31.4 +/- 10.2 vessels/high-power field, P = .02), and perfusion (0.028 +/- 0.009 microm3 blood/microm3 tissue vs 0.044 +/- 0.004 microm3 blood/microm3 tissue, P = .01). Enhanced myocardial viability was demonstrated by increased myofilament density (40.7 +/- 8.5 cardiomyocytes/high-power field vs 50.8 +/- 7.5 cardiomyocytes/high-power field, P = .03). Regional myocardial function within the treated territory demonstrated augmented contractility. Global hemodynamic function was significantly improved relative to the control group with transmyocardial laser revascularization (cardiac output 2.1 +/- 0.2 L/min vs 2.7 +/- 0.2 L/min, P = .007, mixed venous oxygen saturation 64.7% +/- 3.6% vs 76.1% +/- 3.4%, P = .008).
Transmyocardial laser revascularization with the holmium-YAG laser enhances perfusion, with resultant improvement in myocardial contractility.

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    ABSTRACT: Transmyocardial revascularization (TMR) prior to mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation augments repair of infarcted hearts. We evaluated the effects of TMR on homing and engraftment of circulating MSCs and mediators of this effect. Three weeks after left anterior descending coronary artery ligation in female rats, 10-channel needle TMR was performed in the infarct, followed by daily intravenous injections of 1 million male MSCs for 5 days. Control rats had MSC infusions without TMR (n=16/group). Donor MSC survival was evaluated at 3 days and at 1 week by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, as well as expression of stem cell factor (SCF), stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1), c-kit, and chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4). The MSCs engrafted into the infarct, clustering around TMR channels. The MSC engraftment was greater in TMR hearts at 3 days and at 1 week. Both SCF (p=0.03) and c-kit (p=0.01) were upregulated by TMR at 3 days, but their levels fell at 1 week (p=0.3, p=0.5, respectively). The SDF-1 levels were higher in TMR hearts at both 3 days (p=0.04) and at 1 week (p=0.04). The CXCR4 was upregulated early by TMR (p=0.0002) but levels dropped dramatically at 1 week (p=0.045). Transmyocardial revascularization induces transmigration and engraftment of circulating MSCs. Post TMR, the transcription of SCF and c-kit is rapid and corresponds temporally to MSC engraftment, while SDF-1 levels rise slowly. The CXCR4 is also transiently upregulated. The TMR-augmented repair of infarcted hearts by stem cell transplantation may be mediated by a novel mechanism: transmigration and engraftment of circulating progenitor cells.
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Pavan Atluri