Efficacy of three different ablative procedures to treat atrial fibrillation in patients with valvular heart disease: A randomised trial

K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai, India.
Heart, Lung and Circulation (Impact Factor: 1.17). 07/2008; 17(3):232-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.hlc.2007.10.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Various modifications have been proposed to the original Cox's Maze procedure due to concerns about the long bypass and cross clamp times. The efficacy of these procedures has been studied and reported. We conducted a randomised prospective study to compare three procedures, differing in extent, of ablation in patients in atrial fibrillation who were undergoing surgery for rheumatic valvular heart disease. These procedures utilised radiofrequency in the bipolar mode. The extent of ablation was (1) biatrial (replication of the Cox Maze) (2) left atrial portion of the Cox Maze and (3) pulmonary vein isolation along with a control group (the No Maze group). Conversion rate to sinus rhythm was studied over a mid-term follow-up period.
A total of 160 patients were studied with 40 patients in each group. Antiarrhythmic drugs were not used in the three months preceding surgery and for seven days postoperatively. The patients underwent surgery for their valve disease along with the ablative procedure as per randomisation using radiofrequency microbipolar coagulation and cryoablation. They were followed up and were evaluated for symptomatic improvement, rhythm with ECG documentation and 2D echocardiography.
Follow-up was available for 133 patients. Mid-term results showed that sinus rhythm was restored in 62.5% patients of Biatrial Maze group and 57.5% in the Left Atrial Maze. In the Pulmonary Vein Isolation Maze group, 67.5% patients converted to NSR whereas in the No Maze group only 20% patients were in sinus rhythm (p value for all the groups was 0.001 when compared to the No Maze group). The incidence of other arrhythmias was not significant and there were no other major complications. All the patients in sinus rhythm at follow-up were in NYHA functional class I-II and showed good effort tolerance.
Results achieved with the three ablative procedures are comparable. Therefore lesser procedures viz. Left Atrial Maze and the Pulmonary Vein Isolation Maze procedures must be studied further with the additional use of antiarrhythmic drugs.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims Surgical ablation performed concomitantly with cardiac surgery has emerged as an effective curative strategy for atrial fibrillation (AF). Left atrial (LA) lesion sets for ablation have been suggested to reduce procedural times and post-surgical bradycardia compared with biatrial (BA) lesions. Given the inconclusive literature regarding BA vs. LA ablation, the present meta-analysis sought to assess the current evidence. Methods and results Electronic searches were performed using six databases from their inception to December 2013, identifying all relevant randomized trials and observational studies comparing BA vs. LA surgical ablation AF patients undertaking cardiac surgery. In 10 included studies, 2225 patient results were available for analysis to compare BA (n ¼ 888) vs. LA (n ¼ 1337) ablation. Sinus rhythm prevalence was higher in the BA cohort compared with the LA cohort at 6-month and 12-month follow-up, but similar beyond 1 year. Permanent pacemaker implantations were higher in the BA cohort, but 30-day and late mortality, neurological events, and reoperation for bleeding were similar between BA and LA groups. Conclusions Biatrial and LA ablations produced comparable 30-day and late mortality but LA was associated with significantly reduced permanent pacemaker implantation rates. Biatrial ablation appeared to be more efficacious than LA ablation in achieving SR at 1 year, but this difference was not maintained beyond 1 year. Trends appear to be driven by the preferential selection of long-standing and persistent AF patients for the BA approach. Future randomized studies of adequate follow-up are required to validate risks and benefits of BA vs. LA surgical ablation.
    Europace 10/2014; DOI:10.1093/europace/euu220 · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is commonest sustained atrial arrhythmia producing high morbidity. Although Cox's Maze III procedure cures AF in majority, reduced atrial transport function (ATF) is a concern. Radial approach with ablation lines radial from sinus node towards atrioventricular annulii and parallel to atrial coronary arteries, has shown better ATF. Methods Single blind open randomized prospective study of 80 patients was undertaken in two groups (40 each) of modified Cox's maze III and modified radial approach, to evaluate conversion to normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and ATF. Patients undergoing surgery for rheumatic valvular heart disease with continuous AF were prospectively randomized. Ablation lines were created with radiofrequency (RF) bipolar coagulation with cryoablation for the isthmal lesions and coronary sinus. Results were compared at 6 months and ATF was evaluated by atrial filling fraction (AFF) and A/E ratio on echocardiography. Results The rate of conversion to NSR in both groups was statistically insignificant by Fisher's exact test (p > 0.05). ATF was better in modified radial approach compared to modified Cox's Maze III (A/E compared by unpaired t test:0.52 ± 0.08 v/s 0.36 ± 0.10; p < 0.05. AFF compared using Mann Whitney U test: median AFF for radial group was 23 v/s 20 for biatrial group; p < 0.05). Discussion In patients with AF undergoing rheumatic valvular surgery, radiofrequency radial approach is as effective as modified Cox's maze III for conversion to NSR with better atrial transport function.
    Indian Heart Journal 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ihj.2014.05.010 · 0.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Simplified maze procedures involving radiofrequency, cryoenergy and microwave energy sources have been increasingly utilized for surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation as an alternative to the traditional cut-and-sew approach. In the absence of direct comparisons, a Bayesian network meta-analysis is another alternative to assess the relative effect of different treatments, using indirect evidence. A Bayesian meta-analysis of indirect evidence was performed using 16 published randomized trials identified from 6 databases. Rank probability analysis was used to rank each intervention in terms of their probability of having the best outcome. Sinus rhythm prevalence beyond the 12-month follow-up was similar between the cut-and-sew, microwave and radiofrequency approaches, which were all ranked better than cryoablation (respectively, 39, 36, 25 vs 1%). The cut-and-sew maze was ranked worst in terms of mortality outcomes compared with microwave, radiofrequency and cryoenergy (2 vs 19, 34, 24%, respectively). The cut-and-sew maze procedure was found to have significantly lower stroke rates compared with microwave ablation [odds ratio <0.01; 95% confidence interval 0.00, 0.82], and ranked the best in terms of pacemaker requirements compared with microwave, radiofrequency and cryoenergy (81 vs 14, 1, <0.01%). Bayesian rank probability analysis shows that the cut-and-sew approach is associated with the best outcomes in terms of sinus rhythm prevalence and stroke outcomes, and remains the gold standard approach for AF treatment. Given the limitations of indirect comparison analysis, these results should not be over-interpreted and should be viewed with caution.
    European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 11/2014; DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezu408 · 2.81 Impact Factor


Available from
Jul 13, 2014