Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards. Biomed Pharmacother

Department of Oncology, University Hospital, SE-701 85 Orebro, Sweden.
Biomedecine [?] Pharmacotherapy (Impact Factor: 2.02). 03/2008; 62(2):104-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2007.12.004
Source: PubMed


During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential health risks from power-frequency fields (extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF) and from radiofrequency/microwave radiation emissions (RF) from wireless communications. Non-thermal (low-intensity) biological effects have not been considered for regulation of microwave exposure, although numerous scientific reports indicate such effects. The BioInitiative Report is based on an international research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. Health endpoints reported to be associated with ELF and/or RF include childhood leukaemia, brain tumours, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancer, miscarriage and some cardiovascular effects. The BioInitiative Report concluded that a reasonable suspicion of risk exists based on clear evidence of bioeffects at environmentally relevant levels, which, with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. Regarding ELF a new lower public safety limit for habitable space adjacent to all new or upgraded power lines and for all other new constructions should be applied. A new lower limit should also be used for existing habitable space for children and/or women who are pregnant. A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6 W/Kg and 2 W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields not summarized here may be found in the BioInitiative Report at

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Available from: Lennart Hardell, Jul 28, 2014
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    • "The problem of " electromagnetic compatibility " of nature and sources of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is becoming increasingly important [2]. To date, significant correlation between the activity of this factor and the vital functions of various living beings are being established [3]. Microorganisms are widespread in nature and form the basic ecological and trophic links in the functioning of the biosphere. "
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    ABSTRACT: Continuous increase in the number and the variety of anthropogenic sources of electromagnetic radiation causes a high interest in studying the effects ultrahigh frequency on living organisms. In the present research influence of UHF EMR (15 W, 2.45 GHz) for 5 and 15 min on morphological and genetic peculiarities of Photobacterium phosphoreum colonies was studied. It has been revealed that UHF EMR affected colony growth parameters, induced transcriptional activity of luciferase encoding gene expression and that the effect was depended on exposure duration. The subsequent cultivation of bacteria during a two week period after treatment showed maintaining of the increased luxb mRNA level in irradiated colonies. Opposite bacterial stress responses were detected to UHF EMR and elevated temperature treatments that assumed UHF EMR comprised of not only thermal but specific component of non-thermal nature.
    Central European Journal of Biology 10/2014; 9(10). DOI:10.2478/s11535-014-0347-5 · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    • "The effect of EMF emitted by mobile phones on the developing embryo/fetus during pregnancy is attracting considerable interest from researchers (Odacı et al., 2008, 2013, 2014; Topal et al., 2014). Studies on the subject have reported that exposure to the effect of EMF in the prenatal or postnatal period causes childhood leukemia (Wertheimer and Leeper, 1979), brain tumors in adults (Feychting et al., 1997), DNA damage (Lai and Singh, 2004), neurodegenerative diseases (Köktürk et al., 2013), immune system disorders (Kimata, 2004) and various cardiovascular diseases (Jeong et al., 2005; Hardell and Sage, 2008). Heart development in rats begins with the formation of the cardiogenic area on the ninth day of the prenatal term and continues, albeit at a low level, after birth (Marcela et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The growing spread of mobile phone use is raising concerns about the effect on human health of the electromagnetic field (EMF) these devices emit. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on rat pup heart tissue of prenatal exposure to a 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF. For this purpose, pregnant rats were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group rats were exposed to a 900 MHz EMF (1 h/d) on days 13-21 of pregnancy. Measurements were performed with rats inside the exposure box in order to determine the distribution of EMF intensity. Our measurements showed that pregnant experimental group rats were exposed to a mean electrical field intensity of 13.77 V/m inside the box (0.50 W/m(2)). This study continued with male rat pups obtained from both groups. Pups were sacrificed on postnatal day 21, and the heart tissues were extracted. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and catalase values were significantly higher in the experimental group rats, while glutathione values were lower. Light microscopy revealed irregularities in heart muscle fibers and apoptotic changes in the experimental group. Electron microscopy revealed crista loss and swelling in the mitochondria, degeneration in myofibrils and structural impairments in Z bands. Our study results suggest that exposure to EMF in the prenatal period causes oxidative stress and histopathological changes in male rat pup heart tissue.
    Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 08/2014; DOI:10.3109/15368378.2014.952742 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    • "However , the guidelines and regulations mainly revolve around the thermal effects of microwave radiation. There is sufficient evidence to prove that non-thermal effects also deteriorate our health and well-being; unfortunately, current regulations are not effective enough to prevent non-thermal health hazards of electromagnetic radiation [23]. Numerous dosimetric studies have intensively used numerical SAR calculations to evaluate the effects of exposure to EM radiations from communication towers and other mobile devices on human tissues [24] [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, two software packages using different numerical techniques—FEKO 6.3 with Finite-Element Method (FEM) and XFDTD 7 with Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD)—were used to assess exposure of 3D models of square-, rectangular-, spherical- and pyramidal-shaped water containers to electromagnetic waves at 300, 900, and 2400 MHz frequencies. Using the FEM simulation technique, the peak electric field of 25, 4.5, 3, and 2 V/m at 300 MHz and 15.75, 1.5, 1.8 and 1.75 V/m at 900 MHz were observed in pyramidal-, rectangular-, spherical-, and squareshaped 3D container models, respectively. The FDTD simulation method confirmed a peak electric field of 12.782, 10.907, 0.81867 and 10.625 V/m at 2400 MHz in the pyramidal-, square-, spherical-, and rectangular-shaped 3D models, respectively. The study demonstrated an exceptionally high level of electric field in the water in the two identical pyramid-shaped 3D models analyzed using the two different simulation techniques. Both FEM and FDTD simulation techniques indicated variations in the distribution of electric, magnetic fields, and specific absorption rate of water stored inside the 3D container models. The study successfully demonstrated that shape and dimensions of 3D models significantly influence the electric and magnetic fields inside packaged materials; thus, specific absorption rates in the stored water vary according to the shape and dimensions of the packaging materials.
    Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications 08/2014; 6(9):213-232. DOI:10.4236/jemaa.2014.69022
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