Impulsivity in Hong Kong-Chinese club-drug users.
ABSTRACT To investigate the relationship between personality, club-drug use and high-risk drug-related behaviour, 360 club-drug users and 303 non-drug users in Hong Kong were assessed on measures of two impulsivity dimensions, reward drive and rash impulsivity, and a related trait of punishment sensitivity. The most frequently used drugs were ketamine, ecstasy, and cannabis, with the majority of participants using two or more drugs on any one occasion. Club-drug users were more rash-impulsive and reward-driven, and less punishment-sensitive than non-drug users (p<0.001). Rash impulsivity, but not reward drive or punishment sensitivity, was significantly (p<0.001) associated with risky drug-related behaviour. There was no association between any personality traits and preferred drug. These findings suggest that, while those who use club drugs are generally more impulsive and less punishment-sensitive, some discrete facets of impulsivity are associated with differing patterns of drug-use behaviour.
Article: Primary spinal dumbbell-shaped mesenchymal chondrosarcoma located intradurally and extradurally.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors of the bone and soft tissue. Spinal mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are even rarer and, to the best of our knowledge those that are concomitantly located in the intradural and extradural regions, have never been reported. We report a case of a 25-year-old man with back pain and bilateral progressive weakness of the lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a markedly enhanced dumbbell-shaped mass at the T7 level. The lesion was intradurally located at the left side of the spinal cord, and extended extradurally to the extraforminal space through the T7-8 intervertebral foramen. The tumor was completely excised through a posterior approach. Microscopic examination and immunohistochemical studies confirmed mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. Postoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy were also performed to prevent local recurrence and metastasis. The patient has been symptom-free for two years after surgery. Herein, we reviewed and discussed the clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of primary intraspinal mesenchymal chondrosarcomas in the literature.Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 11/2011; 50(5):468-71. · 0.60 Impact Factor