Genetic diversity-independent neutralization of pandemic viruses (e.g. HIV), potentially pandemic (e.g. H5N1 strain of influenza) and carcinogenic (e.g. HBV and HCV) viruses and possible agents of bioterrorism (variola) by enveloped virus neutralizing compounds (EVNCs).
ABSTRACT Genetic diversity and hypermutation contribute to difficulties in developing a vaccine against viruses like HIV and influenza. There are currently no known immune correlates of protection against HIV. This has made the development of a vaccine against HIV that would provide sterilizing immunity in the near future an impossible task. The abandonment of a recent AIDS vaccine human trial due to a failure to elicit a protective sterilising immune response confirms that empirical attempts to develop a vaccine may result in failures. Also the difficulty in predicting the next pandemic strain of influenza may make it difficult to respond rapidly should there be an outbreak. Therefore, it is time to explore broad spectrum agents that can target either the lipid portion of the envelope or the sugar moieties of the glycoproteins or the rafts (regions within viral and cell envelopes where a higher concentration of the glycoproteins exist). Broad spectrum agents that can serve as disrafters or neutralize the viral infectivity by binding to the envelope lipid or sugar moieties will not be affected by the vagaries of hypermutation of surface antigens. This is because the post-translation modification is a host function. Presented here is a review of recently reported agents present in pomegranate juice (polyphenols, beta-sitosterol, sugars and ellagic acid) and fulvic acid, described here as the envelope virus neutralising compounds (EVNCs) and complex molecules like lectins and mucins. Pomegranate juice was previously reported to inactivate HIV and further shown by our group to inactivate influenza, herpes viruses and poxviruses. A formulation consisting of fulvic acid, a complex mixture of compounds was previously reported to render vaccinia virus, HIV and SARS virus non-infectious. Recently, both fulvic acid and pomegranate juice have been shown to inactivate genetically diverse strains of influenza including H5N1, further confirming the broad spectrum nature of these agents. How EVNCs will be used in developing a vaccine achieving sterilizing immunity or prophylaxis needs to be researched.
- SourceAvailable from: José Manuel Brotons MartínezScientia Horticulturae 02/2013; 150(360):364. · 1.50 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A recent increasing demand in Western countries for pomegranate products by consumers is especially supported for the nutritional and medicinal characteristics, due to the antioxidant properties of this fruit. Some studies have been published on the morphological and biochemical characteristics of pomegranate fruits in some Mediterranean countries, but little information is available about the genotypes present in Italy and in particular in Apulia (Southeastern region of Italy). This study (2008–2009) evaluated morpho-pomological and chemical parameters of eight pomegranate genotypes localized in private small orchards. Significant differences were observed among the pomegranate genotypes for many of the parameters investigated. In particular, fruit weight ranged from 168.9 g (SouMol) to 574.9 g (Sou- Ost), ◦Brix from 14.7 (ComTri) to 18.0 (SouMol), titratable acidity from 5.4 (ComMol) to 25.0 (SouTri) g/L. SouMol showed the highest polyphenols (97.1 mg/L) and vitamin C (236.3 mg/L) contents. Oil content of the seeds was between 5.90% and 10.30%, no differences have been observed for the fatty acid composition with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers as the most abundant fraction (81.23%). Considering all the evaluated parameters, and especially those referring to the organoleptic characteristics and antioxidants content, it must be stated that the best genotypes worthy to be considered from agricultural and industrial points of view were AdeSgi for fresh market and SouOst for the juice industry.Scientia Horticulturae 09/2011; 130(3):599-606. DOI:10.1016/j.scienta.2011.08.016 · 1.50 Impact Factor
- International journal of cardiology 02/2009; 144(1):120-1. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2008.12.114 · 6.18 Impact Factor