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Genetic diversity-independent neutralization of pandemic viruses (e.g. HIV), potentially pandemic (e.g. H5N1 strain of influenza) and carcinogenic (e.g. HBV and HCV) viruses and possible agents of bioterrorism (variola) by enveloped virus neutralizing compounds (EVNCs)

Department of Medicine, University of Massachusettes, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.49). 07/2008; 26(24):3055-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.12.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Genetic diversity and hypermutation contribute to difficulties in developing a vaccine against viruses like HIV and influenza. There are currently no known immune correlates of protection against HIV. This has made the development of a vaccine against HIV that would provide sterilizing immunity in the near future an impossible task. The abandonment of a recent AIDS vaccine human trial due to a failure to elicit a protective sterilising immune response confirms that empirical attempts to develop a vaccine may result in failures. Also the difficulty in predicting the next pandemic strain of influenza may make it difficult to respond rapidly should there be an outbreak. Therefore, it is time to explore broad spectrum agents that can target either the lipid portion of the envelope or the sugar moieties of the glycoproteins or the rafts (regions within viral and cell envelopes where a higher concentration of the glycoproteins exist). Broad spectrum agents that can serve as disrafters or neutralize the viral infectivity by binding to the envelope lipid or sugar moieties will not be affected by the vagaries of hypermutation of surface antigens. This is because the post-translation modification is a host function. Presented here is a review of recently reported agents present in pomegranate juice (polyphenols, beta-sitosterol, sugars and ellagic acid) and fulvic acid, described here as the envelope virus neutralising compounds (EVNCs) and complex molecules like lectins and mucins. Pomegranate juice was previously reported to inactivate HIV and further shown by our group to inactivate influenza, herpes viruses and poxviruses. A formulation consisting of fulvic acid, a complex mixture of compounds was previously reported to render vaccinia virus, HIV and SARS virus non-infectious. Recently, both fulvic acid and pomegranate juice have been shown to inactivate genetically diverse strains of influenza including H5N1, further confirming the broad spectrum nature of these agents. How EVNCs will be used in developing a vaccine achieving sterilizing immunity or prophylaxis needs to be researched.

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    • "Besides sensory properties, pomegranate shows interesting nutritional and health-promoting features (Viuda-Martos et al., 2010). In particular, the antioxidant properties of the fruit (Seeram et al., 2008), which contains anti-carcinogenic (Bell and Hawthorne, 2008), antimicrobial (Reddy et al., 2007), antiviral (Kotwal, 2007), anti-inflammatory (Giménez-Bastida et al., 2012), and anti-atherosclerotic compounds, even able to reduce blood pressure and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) oxidation (Aviram et al., 2004), are well appreciated. The above health-promoting features are mainly attributed to the high total level of polyphenolic compounds, especially ellagitannins (Gil et al., 2000; Tzulker et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Two strains (POM1 and C2) or LP09 of Lactobacillus plantarum, which were previously isolated from tomatoes and carrots, and another commercial strain of L. plantarum (LP09), were selected to singly ferment (30°C for 120h) pomegranate juice (PJ) under standardized protocol. PJs were further stored at 4°C for 30days. Filtered PJ, not added of starters (unstarted PJ), was used as the control. After fermentation, all starters grew to ca. 9.0LogCFU/mL. Viable cells of strain LP09 sharply decreased during storage. The other two strains survived to ca. 7.0 and 8.0LogCFU/mL. Lactic acid bacteria consumed glucose, fructose, malic acid, and branched chain and aromatic amino acids. The concentration of free fatty acids increased for all started PJs. Compared to unstarted PJ, color and browning indexes of fermented PJs were preferable. The concentration of total polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were the highest for started PJs, with some differences that depended on the starter used. Fermentation increased the concentration of ellagic acid, and enhanced the antimicrobial activity. Fermented PJs scavenged the reactive oxygen species generated by H2O2 and modulated the synthesis of immune-mediators from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Unstarted and fermented PJs inhibited the growth of K562 tumor cells. The sensory attributes of fermented PJs were preferred. The fermentation of pomegranate juice would represent a novel technology option, which joins health-promoting, sensory and preservative features to exploit the potential of pomegranate fruits.
    International journal of food microbiology 03/2013; 163(2-3):184-192. DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.03.002 · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    • "Several studies have confirmed the excellent organoleptic and nutritional properties of pomegranates (Al-Said et al., 2009; He et al., 2010; Ozgen et al., 2008; Shwartz et al., 2009; Martínez et al., 2012). Moreover, the traditional importance of pomegranate fruit as a medicinal plant is currently the subject of renewed research because of its anti-carcinogenic, anti-microbial and anti-viral properties (Al-Maiman and Ahnad, 2002; Bell and Hawthorne, 2008; Kotwal, 2007; Reddy et al., 2007; Legua et al., 2012). Although knowledge about the importance of pomegranate in human nutrition has increased in recent years, the external colour of the fruit has not been studied in detail. "
    Scientia Horticulturae 02/2013; 150(360):364. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    • "The desired pomegranate taste varies, however, in different countries and regions. A recent increasing demand in Western countries for pomegranate products by consumers is especially supported for medicinal and nutritional properties (Lansky and Newman, 2007), due to the antioxidant properties of this fruit (Gil et al., 2000; Seeram et al., 2008) that contains anticarcinogenic (Bell and Hawthorne, 2008), antimicrobial (Reddy et al., 2007), antiviral (Kotwal, 2007) and antiatherosclerotic compounds even able to reduce blood pressure and LDL oxidation (Aviram et al., 2004). These activities are mainly attributed to the pomegranate's high levels of antioxidant activity and its high total polyphenols content (Gil et al., 2000; Tzulker et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: A recent increasing demand in Western countries for pomegranate products by consumers is especially supported for the nutritional and medicinal characteristics, due to the antioxidant properties of this fruit. Some studies have been published on the morphological and biochemical characteristics of pomegranate fruits in some Mediterranean countries, but little information is available about the genotypes present in Italy and in particular in Apulia (Southeastern region of Italy). This study (2008–2009) evaluated morpho-pomological and chemical parameters of eight pomegranate genotypes localized in private small orchards. Significant differences were observed among the pomegranate genotypes for many of the parameters investigated. In particular, fruit weight ranged from 168.9 g (SouMol) to 574.9 g (Sou- Ost), ◦Brix from 14.7 (ComTri) to 18.0 (SouMol), titratable acidity from 5.4 (ComMol) to 25.0 (SouTri) g/L. SouMol showed the highest polyphenols (97.1 mg/L) and vitamin C (236.3 mg/L) contents. Oil content of the seeds was between 5.90% and 10.30%, no differences have been observed for the fatty acid composition with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers as the most abundant fraction (81.23%). Considering all the evaluated parameters, and especially those referring to the organoleptic characteristics and antioxidants content, it must be stated that the best genotypes worthy to be considered from agricultural and industrial points of view were AdeSgi for fresh market and SouOst for the juice industry.
    Scientia Horticulturae 09/2011; 130(3):599-606. DOI:10.1016/j.scienta.2011.08.016 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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