In vitro cytostatic and immunomodulatory properties of the medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes

Biotechnology Laboratory, National Agricultural Research Foundation (NAGREF), 1, Sof. Venizelou St., 14123 Lycovrissi, Athens, Greece.
Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.13). 07/2008; 15(6-7):512-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2007.11.029
Source: PubMed


Lentinula edodes, known as "shiitake" is one of the widely used medicinal mushrooms in the Orient. Antitumour activity of extracts of this mushroom has been widely demonstrated in animals and humans. However, this activity was shown to be host mediated and not by direct cytotoxic activity to cancer cells. This study demonstrates cytotoxic and cell growth inhibitory (cytostatic) effect of aqueous extracts of the mushroom on MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line using an MTT cytotoxicity assay. Such effect was demonstrated with fruit body and mycelial extracts, the difference being that there was no significant suppression on normal cells with the latter. Furthermore mycelial extracts did not induce any cytostatic effect in both cancer and normal cell lines based on a DNA synthesis assay. The significant suppression of the proliferation of cancer cells was reflected by the comparatively low IC(50) values and the simultaneous higher respective values on normal fibroblast cells. The immunostimulatory activity of both fruit body and mycelial extracts was tested by the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), which is based on the capacity of active immunomodulators to augment the proliferative response of rat thymocytes to T mitogens in vitro. Both fruit body and mycelial preparations were able to enhance the proliferation of rat thymocytes directly and act as co-stimulators in the presence of the T-mitogen PHA. Interestingly both extracts, similarly to zymosan showed SI(comit)/SI(mit) ratios of about 2, indicating adjuvant properties. Overall L. edodes aqueous extracts have demonstrated direct inhibition of the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro and immunostimulatory properties in terms of mitogenic and co-mitogenic activity in vitro.

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Available from: Antonios Philippoussis, Oct 06, 2015
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    • "In a study of rats inoculated with breast cancer cells, Vetvicka et al.45 observed a reduction in cell proliferation after oral supplementation of β-Glucan extracted from medicinal mushrooms. Likewise, a decrease in the proliferation of cancer cells has been reported in studies carried out by Israilides et al.46 with breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and by Sliva et al.47 using the MDA-MB-231 cell line. "
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women. The most frequent therapeutic approaches for the treatment of this disease are chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, and surgery. Conventional pharmacological treatments cause many harmful side effects in patients. To improve the quality of life of breast cancer patients, researchers have sought alternative adjuvant treatment strategies. To assess the effects of fungi and other basidiomycetes Agaricales on the co-adjuvant treatment of breast cancer, we conducted a literary review of the available scientific evidence. We selected articles published in refereed journals from 1990 to 2011 in Medline, Lilacs, CAPES, Scielo, and Pubmed. Articles written in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were reviewed. We used the following descriptors: Agaricales, medicinal mushroom/fungus, breast cancer, dietary supplementation, synonyms, and related terms. The pharmacological effects of nutritional and medicinal mushrooms have been reported in several experimental clinical studies and have shown promising results in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Adjuvant treatment with mushrooms is associated with improvements in the immunological and hematologic parameters of breast cancer, as well as in the quality of life of these patients. Randomized clinical studies are needed to elucidate the possible mechanisms of action and clinical benefits of these fungi with respect to survival time, disease progression, and metastasis in breast cancer.
    Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 12/2011; 66(12):2133-9. DOI:10.1590/S1807-59322011001200021 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    • "The medium band at 1543 cm -1 in the spectrum of H 3 and small band at 1517 cm -1 in the spectrum of H 4 are related to the aromatic skeletal vibration of the associated lignin in polysaccharides (Xu et al. 2006). The maximum absorption bands in the mid-infrared region at 1200-800 cm -1 have been shown to be useful for the identification of polysaccharides with different structures and compositions (Israilides et al. 2007). The bands in 1200-1000 cm -1 are dominated by ring vibrations overlapped with stretching vibration of C-OH side groups and the C-O-C glycosidic bond vibration (Kačuráková et al. 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Sequential treatments of dewaxed Calamagrostis angustifolia Kom with water (60 oC and 90 oC), 70% ethanol, and 70% ethanol containing 0.2%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0%, and 8.0% NaOH at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:25 (g/mL) at 80 oC for 3 h yielded 36.2% soluble polysaccharides of the dry dewaxed material. The eight polysaccharide fractions obtained were comparatively studied by sugar analysis, GPC, FT-IR, 1H and 13C-NMR, and 2D-NMR (HSQC) spectroscopy. The results showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides might contain noticeable amounts of β-D-glucan, as well as some pectic substances and galactoarabinoxylan. 70% ethanol-soluble polysaccharide was mainly arabinogalactan. The five alkali-soluble hemicelluloses were mainly galactoarabinoxylans. The Ara/Xyl and Ara/Gal values of H 5-H 8 fractions decreased with the increment of NaOH concentration from 1.0% to 8.0%. Meanwhile, the molecular weights had a declining trend from ~60,000 to ~40,000 g/mol. The smaller sized and more branched polysaccharides tended to be extracted in the early stages under milder conditions, and the larger molecular sized and more linear hemicelluloses tended to be isolated under more highly alkaline conditions.
    Bioresources 06/2011; 6(3). DOI:10.15376/biores.6.3.2896-2911 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    • "As far as the microorganism L. edodes is concerned, it is a basidomycetous mold known also as Shiitake; this fungus is a medicinally important edible mushroom (Israilides and Philippoussis, 2003; Philippoussis et al., 2007). Only the last years some research has been made using L. edodes as a potential biotechnological tool, with studies focused upon the production of anti-tumor and anti-bacterial agents (Hassegawa et al., 2005; Surenjav et al., 2006; Israilides et al., 2008) or enzymes (Cavallazzi et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Waste bio-diesel derived glycerol was used as the sole carbon source by higher fungi; two Lentinula edodes strains were flask cultured in carbon-limited conditions and displayed satisfactory growth in media presenting weak agitation, pH 4.0 and temperature 25 °C. Maximum biomass of 5.2 g/l was produced. Mycelia were synthesized, containing around 0.1 g of fat per g of biomass, with linoleic acid (Δ9,12C18:2) being the principal cellular fatty acid produced. Two Aspergillus niger strains were grown in nitrogen-limited flask cultures with constant nitrogen and two different initial glycerol concentrations into the medium. In 250-ml flask cultures, large-sized pellets were developed, in contrast with the trials performed in 2-l flasks. Nitrogen limitation led to oxalic acid secretion and intra-cellular lipid accumulation; in any case, sequential production of lipid and oxalic acid was observed. Initially, nitrogen limitation led to lipid accumulation. Thereafter, accumulated lipid was re-consumed and oxalic acid, in significant quantities, was secreted into the medium. In large-sized pellets, higher quantities of intra-cellular total lipid and lower quantities of oxalic acid were produced and vice versa. Maximum quantities of oxalic acid up to 20.5–21.5 g/l and lipid up to 3.1–3.5 g/l (corresponding to 0.41–0.57 g of fat per g of biomass) were produced. Lipid was mainly composed of oleic (Δ9C18:1) and linoleic (Δ9,12C18:2) acids.
    Industrial Crops and Products 03/2010; 31(2-31):407-416. DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2009.12.011 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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