The role of early fine and gross motor development on later motor and cognitive ability

School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia, Australia.
Human Movement Science (Impact Factor: 1.6). 10/2008; 27(5):668-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.humov.2007.11.002
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to determine whether information obtained from measures of motor performance taken from birth to 4 years of age predicted motor and cognitive performance of children once they reached school age. Participants included 33 children aged from 6 years to 11 years and 6 months who had been assessed at ages 4 months to 4 years using the ages and stages questionnaires (ASQ: [Squires, J. K., Potter, L., & Bricker, D. (1995). The ages and stages questionnaire users guide. Baltimore: Brookes]). These scores were used to obtain trajectory information consisting of the age of asymptote, maximum or minimum score, and the variance of ASQ scores. At school age, both motor and cognitive ability were assessed using the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND: [McCarron, L. (1997). McCarron assessment of neuromuscular development: Fine and gross motor abilities (revised ed.). Dallas, TX: Common Market Press.]), and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Version IV (WISC-IV: [Wechsler, D. (2004). WISC-IV integrated technical and interpretive manual. San Antonio, Texas: Harcourt Assessment]). In contrast to previous research, results demonstrated that, although socio-economic status (SES) predicted fine motor performance and three of four cognitive domains at school age, gestational age was not a significant predictor of later development. This may have been due to the low-risk nature of the sample. After controlling for SES, fine motor trajectory information did not account for a significant proportion of the variance in school aged fine motor performance or cognitive performance. The ASQ gross motor trajectory set of predictors accounted for a significant proportion of the variance for cognitive performance once SES was controlled for. Further analysis showed a significant predictive relationship for gross motor trajectory information and the subtests of working memory and processing speed. These results provide evidence for detecting children at risk of developmental delays or disorders with a parent report questionnaire prior to school age. The findings also add to recent investigations into the relationship between early motor development and later cognitive function, and support the need for ongoing research into a potential etiological relationship.

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    • "processing speed and memory . In addition , the bidirectional relationships between attention , motor , reading and mathematics abilities , and EF predictors needs further investigation . For example , there is evidence that motor development may contribute to general cognitive development , of which EFs are a component ( Niederer et al . , 2011 ; Piek et al . , 2008 ) . Therefore , future studies should examine the relationship between motor development and EF skills . It may also be beneficial to examine the longitudinal trajectories of EFs and associated neurodevelopmental processes using a dimensional approach . This would allow us to investigate changes in the magnitude of association between r"
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 405 children of 5-18 years of age were administered performance-based and parent-report measures of executive function (EF), and measures of motor, attention, reading, and mathematics performance. Attention, reading, and mathematics abilities were associated with a parent-report measure of EF. Reading and mathematics abilities were also associated with performance-based measures of EF, including the Animal Sorting, Inhibition, and Response Set subtests of the Developmental NEuroPSYchological Assessment-II. In contrast, motor functioning was only associated with performance-based measures of EF. Findings suggest that different constructs of EF are measured by parent-report versus performance-based measures, and that these different constructs of EF are associated with different neurodevelopmental processes.
    Child Neuropsychology 07/2015; DOI:10.1080/09297049.2015.1065961 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    • "A direct relationship between early gross motor development in infancy and adult executive function was found, suggesting that individuals who increase neural circuits related to evolving motor functions more quickly may allow for more desirable complex circuits involved in higher cognitive processes. Our results support the perspectives from a number of studies regarding childhood development of motor and cognitive skills (Murray et al. 2006; Piek et al. 2008; Bobbio et al. 2009; Miquelote et al. 2012). Bobbio et al. (2009) have found that in six-yearolds , the risk of having a low cognitive ability was 28 times more likely when based on gross motor when compared to fine motor abilities. "
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    ABSTRACT: Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2) (Fine Manual Control [FMC], Manual Coordination [MC], Body Coordination [BC], and Strength & Agility [SA]) and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT-2) (Verbal, Nonverbal, and IQ). Correlation analysis revealed significance between BC and Verbal (.45) and IQ (.51), including MC and IQ (.55). Total Motor Proficiency displayed significance to Verbal (.49), Nonverbal (.40), and IQ (.58). Through regression analysis, MC predicted Verbal (32%) and IQ (31%), while Total Motor Proficiency predicted Verbal (24%), Nonverbal (16%), and IQ (34%). Motor proficiency appears to be associated with cognition, thus emphasizing the importance of early motor skill development.
    European Early Childhood Education Research Journal 06/2015; 23(4). DOI:10.1080/1350293X.2014.991094 · 0.46 Impact Factor
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    • "With regard to cognitive development, motor activity at age 2–5 months has been associated with attention skills at age 13 months (Tamis-Lemonda and Bornstein, 1993) and at age 8 years (Friedman et al., 2005). Similarly, motor maturity and exploration activity at age 5 months have been associated with academic achievement at age 14 years (Bornstein et al., 2013), and motor skills assessed via parent questionnaire between the ages of four to 48 months have been found to predict working memory and processing speed at school age (Piek et al., 2008). With regard to social development, motor and communicative skills have been found to correlate with each other (e.g., Hill, 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent findings suggest impaired motor skill development during infancy in children later diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, it remains unclear whether infants at high familial risk for ASD would benefit from early interventions targeting the motor domain. The current study investigated this issue by providing three-month-old infants at high familial risk for ASD with training experiences aimed at facilitating independent reaching. A group of 17 high-risk infants received two weeks of scaffolded reaching experiences using ‘sticky mittens’, and was compared to 72 low-risk infants experiencing the same or alternative training procedures. Results indicate that high-risk infants – just like low-risk infants – show an increase in grasping activity following ‘sticky mittens’ training. In contrast to low risk infants, evidence that motor training encouraged a preference for faces in high-risk infants was inconclusive.
    Frontiers in Psychology 09/2014; 5. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01071 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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