Trends in acute otitis media-related health care utilization by privately insured young children in the United States, 1997-2004
ABSTRACT The goal was to estimate the population effect of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on rates of acute otitis media-related ambulatory visits and antibiotic prescriptions for <2-year-old children enrolled in private insurance plans.
We performed a retrospective analysis of a defined population by using the 1997-2004 MarketScan databases, which included an average of >500,000 person-years of observations for children <2 years of age. Trends in rates of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision-coded ambulatory visits and antibiotic prescriptions attributable to acute otitis media were evaluated, and the national direct medical expenditures for these outcomes were estimated.
In a comparison of 2004 with 1997-1999 (baseline period), rates of ambulatory visits and antibiotic prescriptions attributable to acute otitis media decreased from 2173 to 1244 visits per 1000 person-years (42.7% reduction) and from 1244 to 722 prescriptions per 1000 person-years (41.9% reduction), respectively. Total, estimated, national direct medical expenditures for acute otitis media-related ambulatory visits and antibiotic prescriptions for children <2 years of age decreased from an average of $1.41 billion during 1997 to 1999 to $0.95 billion in 2004 (32.3% reduction).
Acute otitis media-related health care utilization and associated antibiotic prescriptions for privately insured young children decreased more than expected (on the basis of efficacy estimates in prelicensure clinical trials) after the introduction of routine 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization. Although other factors, such as clinical practice guidelines to reduce antibiotic use, might have contributed to the observed trend, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine may play an important role in reducing the burden of acute otitis media, resulting in substantial savings in medical care costs.
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ABSTRACT: AimThis study aims to describe the microbiology of middle ear fluid (MEF) in a cohort of children vaccinated with Streptococcus pneumoniae conjugate vaccine (PCV7) having ventilation tube insertion. Nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage of otopathogens in these children is compared with children without history of otitis media.Methods Between May and November 2011, MEF and NP samples from 325 children aged <3 years were collected in three major centres in New Zealand at the time of ventilation tube insertion. An age-matched non-otitis-prone comparison group of 137 children had NP samples taken. A questionnaire was completed by both groups.ResultsImmunisation coverage with at least one dose of PCV7 was 97%. Haemophilus influenzae was cultured in 19.4% of MEF and was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive in 43.4%. S. pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis were cultured in <10% of MEF samples but were PCR positive for 23.1% and 38.7%, respectively. H. influenzae was the most common organism isolated from NP samples (60%) in the grommet group, while M. catarrhalis (56%) was the most common in the non-otitis prone group. S. pneumoniae was more commonly found in the nasopharynx of children with ear disease (41% vs. 29%). 19F was the most prominent S. pneumoniae serotype in NP samples of both groups, but no serotype dominated in MEF. Ninety-five per cent of H. influenzae isolates were confirmed to be non-typeable H. influenzae.Conclusion In this cohort of children with established ear disease requiring surgical intervention, non-typeable H. influenzae is the dominant pathogen in both the nasopharynx and MEF.Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 10/2014; DOI:10.1111/jpc.12710 · 1.19 Impact Factor
Clinical Infectious Diseases 08/2014; · 9.42 Impact Factor