Article

Metformin Addition Attenuates Olanzapine-Induced Weight Gain in Drug-Naive First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

Institute of Mental Health of the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.
American Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.56). 04/2008; 165(3):352-8. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07010079
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of metformin in preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain.
Forty patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to treatment for 12 weeks with olanzapine, 15 mg/day, plus metformin, 750 mg/day (N=20), or olanzapine, 15 mg/day, plus placebo (N=20). This investigation was conducted in a double-blind fashion. Planned assessments included body weight, body mass index, proportion of patients who gained more than 7% of their baseline weight at the end of the 12-week treatment, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, fasting glucose and insulin, insulin resistance index, and scores on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS).
Of the 40 patients who were randomly assigned, 37 (92.5%) completed treatments. The weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio levels increased less in the olanzapine plus metformin group relative to the olanzapine plus placebo group during the 12-week follow-up period. The insulin and insulin resistance index values of the olanzapine plus placebo group increased significantly at weeks 8 and 12. In contrast, the insulin and insulin resistance index levels of the olanzapine plus metformin group remained unchanged. Significantly fewer patients in the olanzapine plus metformin group relative to patients in the olanzapine plus placebo group increased their baseline weight by more than 7%, which was the cutoff for clinically meaningful weight gain. There was a significant decrease in SAPS and SANS scores within each group from baseline to week 12, with no between-group differences. Metformin was tolerated well by all patients.
Metformin was effective and safe in attenuating olanzapine-induced weight gain and insulin resistance in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients. Patients displayed good adherence to this type of preventive intervention.

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    • "These findings indicate that metformin can improve the weight gain induced by antipsychotic medications. Wu et al. (2008a, 2008b) recently reported the same findings in their studies of effects of metformin in drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients treated with olanzapine and patients who gained more than 10% of their predrug weight after antipsychotic treatment. Our findings are also consistent with previous studies of metformin in obese nondiabetic adults. "
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of metformin for treatment of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Seventy-two patients with first-episode schizophrenia who gained more than 7% of their predrug weight were randomly assigned to receive 1000 mg/d of metformin or placebo in addition to their ongoing treatment for 12 weeks using a double-blind study design. The primary outcome was change in body weight. The secondary outcomes included changes in body mass index, fasting glucose and insulin, and insulin resistance index. Of the 72 patients who were randomly assigned, 66 (91.6%) completed treatments. The body weight, body mass index, fasting insulin and insulin resistance index decreased significantly in the metformin group, but increased in the placebo group during the 12-week follow-up period. Significantly more patients in the metformin group lost their baseline weight by more than 7%, which was the cutoff for clinically meaningful weight loss. Metformin was tolerated well by majority patients. Metformin was effective and safe in attenuating antipsychotic-induced weight gain and insulin resistance in first-episode schizophrenia patients. Patients displayed good adherence to metformin.
    Schizophrenia Research 03/2012; 138(1):54-7. DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2012.02.021 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    • "Emblematically, the combination of metformin and OL therapy in schizophrenic patients was shown to be effective in reducing body weight gain (that increased no more than 7% of baseline weight) and impede insulin resistance index to become significant as it occurred in OL-treated subjects (Wu et al., 2008). The adjunct of metformin to subjects undergone to OL therapy for 3 months led to a significant improvement of insulin sensitivity as well as body weight, glucose, triglycerides and insulin plasma levels (Chen et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Beside the therapeutic improvement over first-generation antipsychotics, the fact that prescription of atypical agents is also associated to the emergence of severe metabolic derangement in patients is not a mystery anymore. Body weight gain, dyslipidemia, adiposity, impaired glucose homeostasis, insulin and leptin resistance and new-onset type II diabetes are all part of a syndromic cluster of vast medical concern. Thus, clinical reports and rodent models of atypical antipsychotic-associated metabolic impairment have growth in parallel as separate territories. This review focuses on the attempt to take a snapshot of the present developing moment and to describe to what extent clinical data are reflected by the findings derived from animal studies. This aim is pursued through different steps that, starting from the criteria necessary to characterize the "atypicality" of atypical drugs, then explore the consistency among clinical and animal-based data. The endpoint of this survey consists in the analysis of the potential mechanisms underlying the metabolic derangement induced by this class of drugs. It is, indeed, our opinion that some atypical antipsychotics should be viewed as potent obesogenic factors that can be exploited as valuable tools to shed light into the elusive dilemma of obesity. For this reason, recently identified obesogenic and diabetogenic mechanisms are the background on which the present work is built and some novel forthcoming lines of investigation suggested.
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    ABSTRACT: Weight gain is a clinically important side effect of antipsychotic drug therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the antidiabetic drug metformin on antipsychotic-induced weight gain in non-diabetic patients. In a systematic literature review we identified 195 citations from which seven randomized, placebo-controlled studies (398 patients) were included in the final analysis. Studies in adults (n ¼5) and in children (n ¼2) were analysed separately. Compared with placebo, metformin treatment caused a significant body weight reduction in adult non-diabetic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics (4.8%, 95% CI 1.6 to 8.0) and in children (4.1%, 95% CI 2.2 to 6.0). There was evidence of substantial heterogeneity among studies, and when the analysis was restricted to patients with a manifest (>10%) body weight increase prior to randomisation metformin reduced weight by 7.5% (95% CI 2.9 to 12.0). The effect was larger in Asians (7.8%, 95% CI 4.4 to 11.2) than in Hispanics (2.0%, 95% CI 0.7 to 3.3). In conclusion, metformin has a pronounced weight-reducing effect in antipsychotic-treated patients, especially in those with a manifest weight gain. Although direct comparisons are lacking, the observed effect on body weight compares favourably with the effect of sibutramine and orlistat, approved for weight reduction. However, metformin is not approved for use in non-diabetic patients and it is still not generally advisable to recommend metformin to counteract antipsychotic-induced weight gain.
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