The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of metformin in preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain.
Forty patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to treatment for 12 weeks with olanzapine, 15 mg/day, plus metformin, 750 mg/day (N=20), or olanzapine, 15 mg/day, plus placebo (N=20). This investigation was conducted in a double-blind fashion. Planned assessments included body weight, body mass index, proportion of patients who gained more than 7% of their baseline weight at the end of the 12-week treatment, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, fasting glucose and insulin, insulin resistance index, and scores on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS).
Of the 40 patients who were randomly assigned, 37 (92.5%) completed treatments. The weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio levels increased less in the olanzapine plus metformin group relative to the olanzapine plus placebo group during the 12-week follow-up period. The insulin and insulin resistance index values of the olanzapine plus placebo group increased significantly at weeks 8 and 12. In contrast, the insulin and insulin resistance index levels of the olanzapine plus metformin group remained unchanged. Significantly fewer patients in the olanzapine plus metformin group relative to patients in the olanzapine plus placebo group increased their baseline weight by more than 7%, which was the cutoff for clinically meaningful weight gain. There was a significant decrease in SAPS and SANS scores within each group from baseline to week 12, with no between-group differences. Metformin was tolerated well by all patients.
Metformin was effective and safe in attenuating olanzapine-induced weight gain and insulin resistance in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients. Patients displayed good adherence to this type of preventive intervention.
"Protein expression of Uncoupling Protein-1 (UCP-1) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) was examined by Western Blot utilizing previously described methods . Protein samples were extracted from BAT homogenized in RIPA buffer (Sigma, Saint Louis, MO, USA) with the addition of Protease Inhibitor Cocktail (Sigma, Saint Louis, MO, USA). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Olanzapine is a first line medication for the treatment of schizophrenia, but it is also one of the atypical antipsychotics carrying the highest risk of weight gain. Metformin was reported to produce significant attenuation of antipsychotic-induced weight gain in patients, while the study of preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain in an animal model is absent. Berberine, an herbal alkaloid, was shown in our previous studies to prevent fat accumulation in vitro and in vivo. Utilizing a well-replicated rat model of olanzapine-induced weight gain, here we demonstrated that two weeks of metformin or berberine treatment significantly prevented the olanzapine-induced weight gain and white fat accumulation. Neither metformin nor berberine treatment demonstrated a significant inhibition of olanzapine-increased food intake. But interestingly, a significant loss of brown adipose tissue caused by olanzapine treatment was prevented by the addition of metformin or berberine. Our gene expression analysis also demonstrated that the weight gain prevention efficacy of metformin or berberine treatment was associated with changes in the expression of multiple key genes controlling energy expenditure. This study not only demonstrates a significant preventive efficacy of metformin and berberine treatment on olanzapine-induced weight gain in rats, but also suggests a potential mechanism of action for preventing olanzapine-reduced energy expenditure.
PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e93310. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0093310 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"In contrast, two adult studies have been conducted that directly compared different weight loss strategies in antipsychotic treated patients. Wu et al.  compared metformin, healthy lifestyle, and the combination of metformin plus healthy lifestyle, and Stroup et al.  compared healthy lifestyle intervention versus healthy lifestyle plus switch to a lower cardiometabolic risk antipsychotic. To date, no three-arm study of weight loss options for antipsychotic treated patients who experienced relevant weight gain exists, and no study has directly compared addition of a weight loss medication with a switch to a lower risk antipsychotic and healthy lifestyle instructions. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Youth with serious mental illness may experience improved psychiatric stability with second generation antipsychotic (SGA) medication treatment, but unfortunately may also experience unhealthy weight gain adverse events. Research on weight loss strategies for youth who require ongoing antipsychotic treatment is quite limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the design, methods, and rationale of the Improving Metabolic Parameters in Antipsychotic Child Treatment (IMPACT) study, a federally funded, randomized trial comparing two pharmacologic strategies against a control condition to manage SGA-related weight gain.
The design and methodology considerations of the IMPACT trial are described and embedded in a description of health risks associated with antipsychotic-related weight gain and the limitations of currently available research.
The IMPACT study is a 4-site, six month, randomized, open-label, clinical trial of overweight/obese youth ages 8--19 years with pediatric schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar-spectrum disorders, psychotic or non-psychotic major depressive disorder, or irritability associated with autistic disorder. Youth who have experienced clinically significant weight gain during antipsychotic treatment in the past 3 years are randomized to either (1) switch antipsychotic plus healthy lifestyle education (HLE); (2) add metformin plus HLE; or (3) HLE with no medication change. The primary aim is to compare weight change (body mass index z-scores) for each pharmacologic intervention with the control condition. Key secondary assessments include percentage body fat, insulin resistance, lipid profile, psychiatric symptom stability (monitored independently by the pharmacotherapist and a blinded evaluator), and all-cause and specific cause discontinuation. This study is ongoing, and the targeted sample size is 132 youth.
Antipsychotic-related weight gain is an important public health issue for youth requiring ongoing antipsychotic treatment to maintain psychiatric stability. The IMPACT study provides a model for pediatric research on adverse event management using state-of-the art methods. The results of this study will provide needed data on risks and benefits of two pharmacologic interventions that are already being used in pediatric clinical settings but that have not yet been compared directly in randomized trials.Trial registration: Clinical Trials.gov NCT00806234.
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 08/2013; 7(1):31. DOI:10.1186/1753-2000-7-31
"These findings indicate that metformin can improve the weight gain induced by antipsychotic medications. Wu et al. (2008a, 2008b) recently reported the same findings in their studies of effects of metformin in drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients treated with olanzapine and patients who gained more than 10% of their predrug weight after antipsychotic treatment. Our findings are also consistent with previous studies of metformin in obese nondiabetic adults. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of metformin for treatment of antipsychotic-induced weight gain.
Seventy-two patients with first-episode schizophrenia who gained more than 7% of their predrug weight were randomly assigned to receive 1000 mg/d of metformin or placebo in addition to their ongoing treatment for 12 weeks using a double-blind study design. The primary outcome was change in body weight. The secondary outcomes included changes in body mass index, fasting glucose and insulin, and insulin resistance index.
Of the 72 patients who were randomly assigned, 66 (91.6%) completed treatments. The body weight, body mass index, fasting insulin and insulin resistance index decreased significantly in the metformin group, but increased in the placebo group during the 12-week follow-up period. Significantly more patients in the metformin group lost their baseline weight by more than 7%, which was the cutoff for clinically meaningful weight loss. Metformin was tolerated well by majority patients.
Metformin was effective and safe in attenuating antipsychotic-induced weight gain and insulin resistance in first-episode schizophrenia patients. Patients displayed good adherence to metformin.
Schizophrenia Research 03/2012; 138(1):54-7. DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2012.02.021 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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