Depression and ischemic heart disease mortality: evidence from the EPIC-Norfolk United Kingdom prospective cohort study.
ABSTRACT The authors investigated the association between major depressive disorder, including its clinical course, and mortality from ischemic heart disease.
This was a prospective cohort study of 8,261 men and 11,388 women 41-80 years of age who were free of clinical manifestations of heart disease and participated in the Norfolk, U.K., cohort of the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer. The authors conducted a cross-sectional assessment of major depressive disorder during the period 1996-2000 and ascertained subsequent deaths from ischemic heart disease through linkage with data from the U.K. Office for National Statistics.
As of July 31, 2006, 274 deaths from ischemic heart disease were recorded over a total follow-up of 162,974 person-years (the median follow-up period was 8.5 years). Participants who had major depression during the year preceding baseline assessment were 2.7 times more likely to die from ischemic heart disease over the follow-up period than those who did not, independently of age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, physical activity, body mass index, diabetes, social class, heavy alcohol use, and antidepressant medication use. This association remained after exclusion of the first 6 years of follow-up data. Consideration of measures of major depression history (including recency of onset, recurrence, chronicity, and age at first onset) revealed recency of onset to be associated most strongly with ischemic heart disease mortality.
Major depression was associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality. The association was independent of established risk factors for ischemic heart disease and remained undiminished several years after the original assessment.
Article: The relationship between subtypes of depression and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review of biological models.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A compelling association has been observed between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and depression, suggesting individuals with depression to be at significantly higher risk for CVD and CVD-related mortality. Systemic immune activation, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction have been frequently implicated in this relationship. Although a differential epidemiological association between CVD and depression subtypes is evident, it has not been determined if this indicates subtype specific biological mechanisms. A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and PsycINFO databases yielding 147 articles for this review. A complex pattern of systemic immune activation, endothelial dysfunction and HPA axis hyperactivity is suggestive of the biological relationship between CVD and depression subtypes. The findings of this review suggest that diagnostic subtypes rather than a unifying model of depression should be considered when investigating the bidirectional biological relationship between CVD and depression. The suggested model of a subtype-specific biological relationship between depression and CVDs has implications for future research and possibly for diagnostic and therapeutic processes.Translational psychiatry. 02/2012; 2:e92.
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ABSTRACT: Depression is associated with increased mortality, but it is unclear if this relationship is dose-dependent and if it can be modified by treatment with antidepressants. To determine if (1) the association between depression and mortality is independent of other common potential causes of death in later life, (2) there is a dose-response relationship between increasing severity of depression and mortality rates, and (3) the use of antidepressant drugs reduces mortality rates. Cohort study of 5,276 community-dwelling men aged 68-88 years living in Perth, Australia. We used the Geriatric Depression Scale 15-items (GDS-15) to ascertain the presence and severity of depression. GDS-15 > or = 7 indicates the presence of clinically significant depression. Men were also grouped according to the severity of symptoms: "no symptoms" (GDS-15 = 0), "questionable" (1 < or = GDS-15 < or = 4), "mild to moderate" (5 < or = GDS-15 < or = 9), and "severe" (GDS-15 > or = 10). Participants listed all medications used regularly. We used the Western Australian Data Linkage System to monitor mortality. There were 883 deaths between the study assessment and the 30th June 2008 (mean follow-up of participants: 6.0+/-1.1 years). The adjusted mortality hazard (MH) of men with clinically significant depression was 1.98 (95%CI = 1.61-2.43), and increased with the severity of symptoms: 1.39 (95%CI = 1.13-1.71) for questionable, 2.71 (95%CI = 2.13-3.46) for mild/moderate, and 3.32 (95%CI: 2.31-4.78) for severe depression. The use of antidepressants increased MH (HR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.02-1.68). Compared with men who were not depressed and were not taking antidepressants, MH increased from 1.22 (95%CI = 0.91-1.63) for men with no depression who were using antidepressants to 1.85 (95%CI = 1.47-2.32) for participants who were depressed but were not using antidepressants, and 2.97 (95%CI = 1.94-4.54) for those who were depressed and were using antidepressants. All analyses were adjusted for age, educational attainment, migrant status, physical activity, smoking and alcohol use and the Charlson comorbidity index. The mortality associated with depression increases with the severity of depressive symptoms and is largely independent of comorbid conditions. The use of antidepressants does not reduce the mortality rates of older men with persistent symptoms of depression.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(6):e11266. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in physical health management of patients with severe mental illness.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: Awareness of the importance of maintaining physical health for patients with severe mental illnesses has recently been on the increase. Although there are several elements contributing to poor physical health among these patients as compared with the general population, risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and obesity are of particular significance due to their relationship with mortality and morbidity. These patients present higher vulnerability to cardiovascular risk factors based on several issues, such as genetic predisposition to certain pathologies, poor eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, high proportions of smokers and drug abusers, less access to regular health care services, and potential adverse events during pharmacological treatment. Nevertheless, there is ample scientific evidence supporting the benefits of lifestyle interventions based on diet and exercise designed to minimize and reduce the negative impact of these risk factors on the physical health of patients with severe mental illnesses.Annals of General Psychiatry 09/2011; 10:22. · 1.56 Impact Factor