Music therapy has been used in a range of ways to treat depression. Approaches can be active or receptive: active techniques might be used when participants cannot articulate difficult feelings. Here the therapist uses clinical techniques to connect with the patient in an improvised dialogue, which can then act as a springboard to emotional awareness. Receptive techniques involve the use of pre-composed music for relaxation, reflection, guided reminiscence and change of mood state. We conducted a systematic review to find out whether music therapy is effective in reducing the symptoms of depression. Five studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Marked variations in the interventions offered, the populations studied and the outcome measures used meant that quantitative data synthesis and meta-analysis were not appropriate. Four studies reported greater reductions in symptoms of depression among those randomised to music therapy. The fifth study reported no change in mental state among those receiving music therapy compared to those randomised to standard care alone. Findings from individual studies suggest that music therapy for people with depression is feasible and indicate a need for further research.
"affect regulation , a possibility which in turn may have implications for music therapy . According to the Cochrane review on the subject , in the treatment of depression , a small number of clinical studies have shown that the addition of music therapy , including a variety of methods , can offer improved results compared to standard care alone ( Maratos et al . , 2008 ) . Erkkilä et al . ( 2011 ) conducted a controlled trial and found that depression symptoms , anxiety symptoms and general functioning were significantly improved in clients who participated in 3 months of clinical music improvisation sessions compared to those who received only standard care . Similar results regarding music improvisa"
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non-music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n = 123) were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR). Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a subset of participants (n = 56). Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 08/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00466 · 2.99 Impact Factor
"Patients experience imagery through the music program provided by the therapist and subsequently discuss their imagery with the therapist. Music therapy is an effective form of psychological therapy ; it can soothe the suppressed emotions of patients and add vitality to the body, while giving them the energy to share their feelings with others (Maratos et al. 2008). Fig. 1. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and long-term disability worldwide, and post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common and serious psychiatric complication of stroke. PSD makes patients have more severe deficits in activities of daily living, a worse functional outcome, more severe cognitive deficits and increased mortality as compared to stroke patients without depression. Therefore, to reduce or prevent mental problems of stroke patients, psychological treatment should be recommended. Literature and art therapy are highly effective psychological treatment for stroke patients. Literature therapy divided into poetry and story therapy is an assistive tool that treats neurosis as well as emotional or behavioral disorders. Poetry can add impression to the lethargic life of a patient with PSD, thereby acting as a natural treatment. Story therapy can change the gloomy psychological state of patients into a bright and healthy story, and therefore can help stroke patients to overcome their emotional disabilities. Art therapy is one form of psychological therapy that can treat depression and anxiety in stroke patients. Stroke patients can express their internal conflicts, emotions, and psychological status through art works or processes and it would be a healing process of mental problems. Music therapy can relieve the suppressed emotions of patients and add vitality to the body, while giving them the energy to share their feelings with others. In conclusion, literature and art therapy can identify the emotional status of patients and serve as a useful auxiliary tool to help stroke patients in their rehabilitation process.
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 03/2015; 235(1):17-23. DOI:10.1620/tjem.235.17 · 1.35 Impact Factor
"Several Cochrane Reviews into MT have reported mixed outcomes. Two reviews have reported a positive effect, namely MT might be firstly, an acceptable intervention for persons with depression and secondly importantly, that MT had a positive effect in reducing depressive symptoms (Maratos et al., 2008); and MT may have a positive effect on the communicative skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder (Gold et al., 2006). In contrast, a third review found no overall conclusion could be made from the evaluation of the effect of MT for people with dementia due to studies having insufficient sample size and analyses (Vink et al., 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimThis study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of group music therapy (MT) intervention on behaviours of older people with dementia.Method
Reported here are qualitative data from five, semi-structured focus groups; two comprising a total of seven family members and three comprising a total of 23 staff members.ResultsA number of core themes emerged: temporality, effect and policy with a number of subthemes. The MT effect is tempered by the temporality of (i) the older person's dementia state, (ii) the session and (iii) the psychosomatic effect on the older person. Music therapy is perceived to (i) evoke memories and facilitate reminiscence, (ii) act as a diversion (has an instrumental value) and it is contentious to discount the (iii) dichotomy between music and therapist in terms of the overall effect. Finally, policymakers need to know that MT is (i) highly prized and more, not less, MT is recommended.Conclusion
Findings from this study illustrate that the timing of the MT session has consequences for the workflow in the residential aged care facility; MT has a psychosomatic effect and participants here evaluate this as temporal. Care providers and family members acknowledge the instrumental value of MT and its helping with cognition and exercise. They have mixed views about the effects of the music and the effect on the older person by the therapist but most definitely want policymakers to ensure more, not less, planned and better funded MT is part of ongoing care in the residential aged care context. Areas for future research and policy are also highlighted.Implications for practiceThese views on group MT in residential aged care can initiate critical reflection on current practices and systems. Research is needed exploring the timing and scheduling of MT sessions at different times in the day for older person with dementia exhibiting negative behaviours.
International Journal of Older People Nursing 10/2014; 10(2). DOI:10.1111/opn.12071
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