Music therapy for depression

Central and Northwest London Foundation NHS Trust, Arts Therapies, Greater London House, Hampstead Road, London, UK, NW1 7QY.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 5.94). 02/2008; 1(1):CD004517. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004517.pub2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Depression is a highly prevalent disorder associated with reduced social functioning, impaired quality of life, and increased mortality. Music therapy has been used in the treatment of a variety of mental disorders, but its impact on those with depression is unclear.
To examine the efficacy of music therapy with standard care compared to standard care alone among people with depression and to compare the effects of music therapy for people with depression against other psychological or pharmacological therapies.
CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References were searched on 7/11/2007, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, PsycLit, PSYindex, and other relevant sites were searched in November 2006. Reference lists of retrieved articles were hand searched, as well as specialist music and arts therapies journals.
All randomised controlled trials comparing music therapy with standard care or other interventions for depression.
Data on participants, interventions and outcomes were extracted and entered onto a database independently by two review authors. The methodological quality of each study was also assessed independently by two review authors. The primary outcome was reduction in symptoms of depression, based on a continuous scale.
Five studies met the inclusion criteria of the review. Marked variations in the interventions offered and the populations studied meant that meta-analysis was not appropriate. Four of the five studies individually reported greater reduction in symptoms of depression among those randomised to music therapy than to those in standard care conditions. The fifth study, in which music therapy was used as an active control treatment, reported no significant change in mental state for music therapy compared with standard care. Dropout rates from music therapy conditions appeared to be low in all studies.
Findings from individual randomised trials suggest that music therapy is accepted by people with depression and is associated with improvements in mood. However, the small number and low methodological quality of studies mean that it is not possible to be confident about its effectiveness. High quality trials evaluating the effects of music therapy on depression are required.

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    • "Several Cochrane Reviews into MT have reported mixed outcomes. Two reviews have reported a positive effect, namely MT might be firstly, an acceptable intervention for persons with depression and secondly importantly, that MT had a positive effect in reducing depressive symptoms (Maratos et al., 2008); and MT may have a positive effect on the communicative skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder (Gold et al., 2006). In contrast, a third review found no overall conclusion could be made from the evaluation of the effect of MT for people with dementia due to studies having insufficient sample size and analyses (Vink et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: AimThis study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of group music therapy (MT) intervention on behaviours of older people with dementia.Method Reported here are qualitative data from five, semi-structured focus groups; two comprising a total of seven family members and three comprising a total of 23 staff members.ResultsA number of core themes emerged: temporality, effect and policy with a number of subthemes. The MT effect is tempered by the temporality of (i) the older person's dementia state, (ii) the session and (iii) the psychosomatic effect on the older person. Music therapy is perceived to (i) evoke memories and facilitate reminiscence, (ii) act as a diversion (has an instrumental value) and it is contentious to discount the (iii) dichotomy between music and therapist in terms of the overall effect. Finally, policymakers need to know that MT is (i) highly prized and more, not less, MT is recommended.Conclusion Findings from this study illustrate that the timing of the MT session has consequences for the workflow in the residential aged care facility; MT has a psychosomatic effect and participants here evaluate this as temporal. Care providers and family members acknowledge the instrumental value of MT and its helping with cognition and exercise. They have mixed views about the effects of the music and the effect on the older person by the therapist but most definitely want policymakers to ensure more, not less, planned and better funded MT is part of ongoing care in the residential aged care context. Areas for future research and policy are also highlighted.Implications for practiceThese views on group MT in residential aged care can initiate critical reflection on current practices and systems. Research is needed exploring the timing and scheduling of MT sessions at different times in the day for older person with dementia exhibiting negative behaviours.
    International Journal of Older People Nursing 10/2014; 10(2). DOI:10.1111/opn.12071
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    • "Based upon low participant drop-out rate, the music therapy was considered to be a well-tolerated treatment. Maratos et al. [3] concluded that overall quality ratings of the studies included was moderate to poor. They state that larger more rigorous studies are required which recruit sufficiently powered larger sample sizes and incorporate economic evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of treatment in comparison to standardised remedies for depression. "
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic effects of music are well recognised within the literature, with benefits for a variety of health problems documented. This narrative review summarises benefits in terms of reducing stress, anxiety, labour pain and depression in childbearing women. For neonates, music has been shown to reduce number of days to discharge, reduce pain response behaviours, increase weight gain, improve Brazelton scores, improve parent/infant intimacy, improve oxygen saturation, increase formula intake, stabilize vital signs and increase parental reports of calmed infants. The main criticism of the studies reviewed is lack of categorisation of the particulars of the variables within the music that directly influenced outcome variables. A recommendation is made that a music package be developed and relationships with variables rigorously evaluated. The validated product may then be made available for use. Since evidence supports advantages from listening to music, it is suggested that maternity professionals use it in more creative ways.
    Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 08/2014; 20(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ctcp.2014.07.011
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    • "Indeed, music is used by most people for self-regulation of emotions in everyday life [19], [20], and its power to reduce tension, modulate mood, and raise energy has been widely documented [19], [21], [22]. Music is used to modulate affective states in a large number of neurological and psychiatric disorders [23], and brain traumas [24]–[26]. Naturally, the effect of music on listeners is mediated by music culture and individual preferences, which are in turn correlated with age, gender, personality, listening biography, and cognitive style [27], [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e103278. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103278 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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