Haloperidol versus chlorpromazine for schizophrenia

Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 5.94). 02/2008; DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004278.pub2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chlorpromazine and haloperidol are benchmark antipsychotic drugs. Both are said to be equally effective when used at equivalent doses, but have different side-effect profiles.
To compare the effects of haloperidol and chlorpromazine for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses.
We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's register (August 2006). We searched references of all included studies for further trials. We contacted pharmaceutical companies and authors of relevant trials.
We included all randomised controlled trials that compared haloperidol with chlorpromazine for people with schizophrenia and/or schizophrenia-like psychoses.
Citations and, where possible, abstracts were independently inspected by at least two reviewers, papers ordered, re-inspected and quality assessed. We independently extracted data. For dichotomous data we calculated the relative risk (RR), 95% confidence interval (CI) and, where appropriate, the number needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis using a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD).
We found 14 relevant studies, mostly of short duration, poorly reported and conducted in the 1970s (total n=794 participants). Nine of these compared oral formulations of both compounds, and five compared intramuscular formulations. Haloperidol was associated with significantly fewer people leaving the studies early (13 RCTs, n=476, RR 0.26 CI 0.08 to 0.82). The efficacy outcome 'no significant improvement' tended to favour haloperidol, but this difference was not statistically significant (9 RCTs, n=400, RR 0.81 CI 0.64 to 1.04). Movement disorders were more frequent in the haloperidol groups ('at least one extrapyramidal side effect': 6 RCTs, n=37, RR 2.2 CI 1.1 to 4.4, NNH 5 CI 3 to 33), while chlorpromazine was associated with more frequent hypotension (5 RCTs, n=175, RR 0.31 CI 0.11 to 0.88, NNH 7 CI 4 to 25). Similar trends were found when studies comparing intramuscular formulations and studies comparing oral formulations were analysed separately.
Given that haloperidol and chlorpromazine are global standard antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia, it is surprising that less than 800 people have been randomised to a comparison and that incomplete reporting still makes it difficult for anyone to draw clear conclusions on the comparative effects of these drugs. However, it seems that haloperidol causes more movement disorders than chlorpromazine, while chlorpromazine is significantly more likely to lead to hypotonia. We are surprised to have to say that we feel further, large, well designed, conducted and reported studies are required.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During the last three decades, an increasing understanding of the etiology, psychopathology, and clinical manifestations of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in addition to the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics, has optimized the potential for recovery from the illness. Continued development of various models of psychosocial intervention promotes the goal of schizophrenia treatment from one of symptom control and social adaptation to an optimal restoration of functioning and/or recovery. However, it is still questionable whether these new treatment approaches can address the patients' needs for treatment and services and contribute to better patient outcomes. This article provides an overview of different treatment approaches currently used in schizophrenia spectrum disorders to address complex health problems and a wide range of abnormalities and impairments resulting from the illness. There are different treatment strategies and targets for patients at different stages of the illness, ranging from prophylactic antipsychotics and cognitive-behavioral therapy in the premorbid stage to various psychosocial interventions in addition to antipsychotics for relapse prevention and rehabilitation in the later stages of the illness. The use of antipsychotics alone as the main treatment modality may be limited not only in being unable to tackle the frequently occurring negative symptoms and cognitive impairments but also in producing a wide variety of adverse effects to the body or organ functioning. Because of varied pharmacokinetics and treatment responsiveness across agents, the medication regimen should be determined on an individual basis to ensure an optimal effect in its long-term use. This review also highlights that the recent practice guidelines and standards have recommended that a combination of treatment modalities be adopted to meet the complex health needs of people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In view of the heterogeneity of the risk factors and the illness progression of individual patients, the use of multifaceted illness management programs consisting of different combinations of physical, psychological, and social interventions might be efficient and effective in improving recovery.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2013; 9:1311-1332. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S37485 · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The question of which antipsychotic drug should be preferred for the treatment of schizophrenia is controversial, and conventional pairwise meta-analyses cannot provide a hierarchy based on the randomised evidence. We aimed to integrate the available evidence to create hierarchies of the comparative efficacy, risk of all-cause discontinuation, and major side-effects of antipsychotic drugs. We did a Bayesian-framework, multiple-treatments meta-analysis (which uses both direct and indirect comparisons) of randomised controlled trials to compare 15 antipsychotic drugs and placebo in the acute treatment of schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's specialised register, Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and for reports published up to Sept 1, 2012. Search results were supplemented by reports from the US Food and Drug Administration website and by data requested from pharmaceutical companies. Blinded, randomised controlled trials of patients with schizophrenia or related disorders were eligible. We excluded trials done in patients with predominant negative symptoms, concomitant medical illness, or treatment resistance, and those done in stable patients. Data for seven outcomes were independently extracted by two reviewers. The primary outcome was efficacy, as measured by mean overall change in symptoms. We also examined all-cause discontinuation, weight gain, extrapyramidal side-effects, prolactin increase, QTc prolongation, and sedation. We identified 212 suitable trials, with data for 43 049 participants. All drugs were significantly more effective than placebo. The standardised mean differences with 95% credible intervals were: clozapine 0·88, 0·73-1·03; amisulpride 0·66, 0·53-0·78; olanzapine 0·59, 0·53-0·65; risperidone 0·56, 0·50-0·63; paliperidone 0·50, 0·39-0·60; zotepine 0·49, 0·31-0·66; haloperidol 0·45, 0·39-0·51; quetiapine 0·44, 0·35-0·52; aripiprazole 0·43, 0·34-0·52; sertindole 0·39, 0·26-0·52; ziprasidone 0·39, 0·30-0·49; chlorpromazine 0·38, 0·23-0·54; asenapine 0·38, 0·25-0·51; lurasidone 0·33, 0·21-0·45; and iloperidone 0·33, 0·22-0·43. Odds ratios compared with placebo for all-cause discontinuation ranged from 0·43 for the best drug (amisulpride) to 0·80 for the worst drug (haloperidol); for extrapyramidal side-effects 0·30 (clozapine) to 4·76 (haloperidol); and for sedation 1·42 (amisulpride) to 8·82 (clozapine). Standardised mean differences compared with placebo for weight gain varied from -0·09 for the best drug (haloperidol) to -0·74 for the worst drug (olanzapine), for prolactin increase 0·22 (aripiprazole) to -1·30 (paliperidone), and for QTc prolongation 0·10 (lurasidone) to -0·90 (sertindole). Efficacy outcomes did not change substantially after removal of placebo or haloperidol groups, or when dose, percentage of withdrawals, extent of blinding, pharmaceutical industry sponsorship, study duration, chronicity, and year of publication were accounted for in meta-regressions and sensitivity analyses. Antipsychotics differed substantially in side-effects, and small but robust differences were seen in efficacy. Our findings challenge the straightforward classification of antipsychotics into first-generation and second-generation groupings. Rather, hierarchies in the different domains should help clinicians to adapt the choice of antipsychotic drug to the needs of individual patients. These findings should be considered by mental health policy makers and in the revision of clinical practice guidelines. None.
    The Lancet 06/2013; 382(9896). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60733-3 · 39.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary care providers (PCPs) are frequently responsible for the pharmacologic management of mood disorders, and the PCP is often an important member of the clinical team in the management of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Not only is a good understanding of psychopharmacology important for the effective treatment of psychiatric disease, it is also necessary for patient safety. Clinicians should understand the side effects and the medication interactions associated with psychotropic medications. This article reviews mechanisms of action, indications, dosing, side effects, medication interactions, and general management considerations for common medications used to treat psychiatric conditions encountered in the primary care setting.
    Medical Clinics of North America 09/2014; 98(5):927–958. DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2014.06.001 · 2.80 Impact Factor