Glutamine supplementation to prevent morbidity and mortality in preterm infants.
ABSTRACT Glutamine endogenous biosynthesis may be insufficient for tissue needs in states of metabolic stress. Trials in adults have suggested that glutamine supplementation improves clinical outcomes in critically ill adults. It has been suggested that glutamine supplementation may benefit preterm infants, particularly very low birth weight infants.
To determine the effects of glutamine supplementation on mortality and morbidity in preterm infants.
The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 - July 2007), EMBASE (1980 - July 2007), conference proceedings, and previous reviews.
Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared glutamine supplementation versus no glutamine supplementation in preterm infants at any time from birth to discharge from hospital.
The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two authors. Data were synthesised using a fixed effects model and reported using typical relative risk, typical risk difference and weighted mean difference.
2365 preterm infants have participated in seven randomised controlled trials. All of the participating infants were of very low birth weight. Three trials assessed enteral glutamine supplementation and four trials assessed parenteral glutamine supplementation. The trials were generally of good methodological quality with adequate allocation concealment, blinding of caregivers and assessors to the intervention, and complete or near-complete follow-up of recruited infants. Glutamine supplementation does not have a statistically significant effect on mortality: typical relative risk 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.20); typical risk difference 0.00 (95% confidence interval -0.03 to 0.02). The only trial that assessed long-term outcomes did not find any statistically significant differences in various assessments of neurodevelopment at 18 months corrected age. Glutamine supplementation does not have a statistically significant effect on other neonatal morbidities including invasive infection, necrotising enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral nutrition, or duration of hospital stay.
The available data from good quality randomised controlled trials indicate that glutamine supplementation does not confer benefits for preterm infants. The narrow confidence intervals for the effect size estimates suggest that a further trial of this intervention is not a research priority.
- SourceAvailable from: Aleid van Wassenaer-Leemhuis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the application of Dutch versus US test procedures and norms of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development - 2nd edition (BSID-II) leads to different developmental outcomes. The BSID-II was administered to 376 preterm infants (191 males, 185 females; mean gestational age 30wks [SD 2.7], mean birth-weight 1242g [SD 385]) at corrected ages of 6, 12, 24, and/or 36 months. Raw scores were calculated twice with US and Dutch test procedures. Raw scores as well as Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) scores, calculated on the basis of Dutch versus US normative data, were compared. Small but statistically significant Dutch-US differences were found between raw scores. Large, clinically relevant Dutch-US differences were found for MDI and PDI scores, especially at 6 and 12 months. These differences were likely to have been caused by a bias in the Dutch normative data, although a slower developmental pace of Dutch children in general could also have a role. This study highlights the problems that can occur when using a test that was developed in another country, even when local standardization is available.Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 07/2008; 50(6):445-9. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The term "conditionally essential" (or semi-essential), initially applied to amino acids, has been generalized to other nutrients. A conditionally essential nutrient is a compound usually produced in adequate amounts by endogenous synthesis but that is exogenously required under certain circumstances. Thus, arginine, glutamine, cysteine, glycine, carnitine, choline, and polyamines are conditionally essential compounds. In addition, dietary nucleotides are considered semi-essential since some rapidly growing tissues such as the gut, bone marrow, and lymphocytes, preferentially use preformed purine and pyrimidine bases for nucleic acid synthesis. This review discusses the study of conditionally essential nitrogenous nutrients of interest in clinical nutrition. Among them we highlight arginine, involved in endothelial, immune, gastrointestinal, and renal functions, in reproduction, neonatal development, wound healing, and tumorigenicity; glutamine, necessary for maintaining bowel integrity, and with beneficial effects on catabolic states such as sepsis, infection, trauma, and cancer; and nucleotides, implicated in cell growth and differentiation, and with various effects on lipid metabolism, intestinal microbiota, and immune system.Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 06/2006; 21 Suppl 2:14-27, 15-29. · 1.31 Impact Factor
- Revista Paulista de Pediatria 01/2008; 26(3).