Glutamine supplementation to prevent morbidity and mortality in preterm infants
ABSTRACT Glutamine endogenous biosynthesis may be insufficient for tissue needs in states of metabolic stress. Trials in adults have suggested that glutamine supplementation improves clinical outcomes in critically ill adults. It has been suggested that glutamine supplementation may benefit preterm infants, particularly very low birth weight infants.
To determine the effects of glutamine supplementation on mortality and morbidity in preterm infants.
The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 - July 2007), EMBASE (1980 - July 2007), conference proceedings, and previous reviews.
Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared glutamine supplementation versus no glutamine supplementation in preterm infants at any time from birth to discharge from hospital.
The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two authors. Data were synthesised using a fixed effects model and reported using typical relative risk, typical risk difference and weighted mean difference.
2365 preterm infants have participated in seven randomised controlled trials. All of the participating infants were of very low birth weight. Three trials assessed enteral glutamine supplementation and four trials assessed parenteral glutamine supplementation. The trials were generally of good methodological quality with adequate allocation concealment, blinding of caregivers and assessors to the intervention, and complete or near-complete follow-up of recruited infants. Glutamine supplementation does not have a statistically significant effect on mortality: typical relative risk 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.20); typical risk difference 0.00 (95% confidence interval -0.03 to 0.02). The only trial that assessed long-term outcomes did not find any statistically significant differences in various assessments of neurodevelopment at 18 months corrected age. Glutamine supplementation does not have a statistically significant effect on other neonatal morbidities including invasive infection, necrotising enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral nutrition, or duration of hospital stay.
The available data from good quality randomised controlled trials indicate that glutamine supplementation does not confer benefits for preterm infants. The narrow confidence intervals for the effect size estimates suggest that a further trial of this intervention is not a research priority.
SourceAvailable from: Ru-Jeng Teng[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neutropenia is a risk factor for nosocomial infections (NI) in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Although recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) increases the neutrophil counts in neutropenic VLBW infants, its long-term efficacy for early neutropenia (EN) remains unknown. In this case-controlled study, charts of VLBW recipients of rhG-CSF for EN (total neutrophil count <1.5 × 10(9)/L during first 7 days) were reviewed and compared to gestational age, total neutrophil count, and birth weight matched infants unexposed to rhG-CSF. Twenty-seven infants were identified in each group. Mortality and morbidity did not differ between the two groups. Rate of NI (16/27 vs. 4/27, p = 0.002, odds ratio = 8.36) as well as the total number of episodes of NI (22 vs. 4, p = 0.007) were higher in rhG-CSF (+) group than in the rhG-CSF (-) group. Our experience does not show benefit in empirical use of rhG-CSF in preventing NI in VLBW infants with EN. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 02/2015; 114(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jfma.2012.10.009 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective To systematically review meta-analyses (MAs) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions for infants at risk of cerebral palsy (CP) to determine if consensus exists in study end-points. Methods MAs within the "Neonatal" and "Pregnancy and Childbirth" Review Groups in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (to June 2011) were included if they contained risk factors for CP as a study end-point, and were either published in 2010 or 2011 or cited >20 times in Sciverse Scopus. Up to 20 RCTs from each MA were included. Outcome measures, definitions, and cut points for ordinal groupings were extracted from MAs and RCTs and frequencies calculated. Results Twenty-two MAs and 165 RCTs were appraised. High consistency existed in types of outcome domains listed as important in MAs. For 10/16 most frequently cited outcome domains, <50% of RCTs contributed data for meta-analyses. Low consistency in outcome definitions, measures, cut points in RCTs and long term follow-up prohibited data aggregation. Conclusions Variation in outcome measurement and long term follow up has hampered the ability of RCTs to contribute data on important outcomes for CP, resulting in lost opportunities to measure the impact of maternal and neonatal interventions. There is an urgent need for and long term follow up of these interventions and an agreed set of standardised and clinically relevant common data elements for study end-points.Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 10/2014; DOI:10.3109/14767058.2014.972355 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Review the literature regarding parenteral nutrition of preterm infants in order to propose a practical guideline for indication, increase of parameters and monitoring of this nutritional therapy in neonatal units. DATA SOURCE: Studies in English and Portuguese from the last ten years were retrieved from Medline, Embase, Lilacs and SciELO using the following key-words: preterm infants, parenteral nutrition, nutrition therapy and lipid emulsions. Also classical studies and consensus on the theme were manually searched. DATA SYNTHESIS: Parenteral nutrition is an essential treatment strategy for preterm infants. Besides progress in knowledge and legislation, several factors contribute to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality of newborns using parenteral nutrition and to increase the security in its prescription such as catheters' quality, training of the multiprofessional team and development of new specific parenteral nutrition formulations. CONCLUSIONS: The practical parenteral nutrition guideline proposed here follows international guidelines and was based on critical analysis of the studies published in the last 10 years.Revista Paulista de Pediatria 09/2008; 26(3):278-289.