Glutamine supplementation to prevent morbidity and mortality in preterm infants
ABSTRACT Glutamine endogenous biosynthesis may be insufficient for tissue needs in states of metabolic stress. Trials in adults have suggested that glutamine supplementation improves clinical outcomes in critically ill adults. It has been suggested that glutamine supplementation may benefit preterm infants, particularly very low birth weight infants.
To determine the effects of glutamine supplementation on mortality and morbidity in preterm infants.
The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 - July 2007), EMBASE (1980 - July 2007), conference proceedings, and previous reviews.
Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared glutamine supplementation versus no glutamine supplementation in preterm infants at any time from birth to discharge from hospital.
The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two authors. Data were synthesised using a fixed effects model and reported using typical relative risk, typical risk difference and weighted mean difference.
2365 preterm infants have participated in seven randomised controlled trials. All of the participating infants were of very low birth weight. Three trials assessed enteral glutamine supplementation and four trials assessed parenteral glutamine supplementation. The trials were generally of good methodological quality with adequate allocation concealment, blinding of caregivers and assessors to the intervention, and complete or near-complete follow-up of recruited infants. Glutamine supplementation does not have a statistically significant effect on mortality: typical relative risk 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.20); typical risk difference 0.00 (95% confidence interval -0.03 to 0.02). The only trial that assessed long-term outcomes did not find any statistically significant differences in various assessments of neurodevelopment at 18 months corrected age. Glutamine supplementation does not have a statistically significant effect on other neonatal morbidities including invasive infection, necrotising enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral nutrition, or duration of hospital stay.
The available data from good quality randomised controlled trials indicate that glutamine supplementation does not confer benefits for preterm infants. The narrow confidence intervals for the effect size estimates suggest that a further trial of this intervention is not a research priority.
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ABSTRACT: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease of premature infants, with a mortality rate of 10-50%. It is uncommon in term infants and in premature infants who have not yet been fed. Most commonly NEC develops suddenly in a preterm infant who was otherwise well, with initial symptoms of abdominal distention, bilious or bloody emesis or gastric aspirates, hematochezia, and pneumatosis intestinalis, and sometimes progresses quickly to include bowel perforation, acidosis, shock, and death. Trigger factors (i.e. perinatal hypoxia, mild infection or formula feeding) cause focal mild intestinal mucosal injury. In the presence of proliferation of commensal bacteria, local breakdown of mucosal barrier may cause entry of bacterial products (e.g. lipopolysaccharides, platelet-activating factor). Endothelial platelet-activating factor and/or tumor necrotizing factor and/or direct stimulating effects of polymorphonuclear leukocytes cause proinflammatory cascade and focal necrosis, which increase the entry of large amounts of bacterial toxins, and then severe NEC, sepsis, and shock develop. Therapies for the prevention of NEC that appear to have some benefit are breastfeeding and antenatal steroids, and probably probiotics. Enteral immunoglobulin, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and arginine or glutamine supplementation are therapies for the prevention of NEC that do not appear to be of benefit. Enteral erythropoietin and enteral granulocyte colony-stimulating factor are promising novel therapies. Treatment options are limited to gut rest, parenteral nutrition, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and surgical interventions for enteral perforation. Two commonly used methods for NEC with intestinal perforation are laparotomy or primary peritoneal drainage ("patch, drain and wait"); however, the preferred method is controversial.The Turkish journal of pediatrics 50(1):1-11.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Review the literature regarding parenteral nutrition of preterm infants in order to propose a practical guideline for indication, increase of parameters and monitor- ing of this nutritional therapy in neonatal units. Data source: Studies in English and Portuguese from the last ten years were retrieved from Medline, Embase, Lilacs and SciELO using the following key-words: preterm infants, parenteral nutrition, nutrition therapy and lipid emulsions. Also classical studies and consensus on the theme were manually searched. Data synthesis: Parenteral nutrition is an essential treatment strategy for preterm infants. Besides progress in knowledge and legislation, several factors contribute to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality of newborns using parenteral nutrition and to increase the security in its prescription such as catheters' quality, training of the multiprofessional team and development of new specifi c parenteral nutrition formulations. Conclusions: The practical parenteral nutrition guide- line proposed here follows international guidelines and was based on critical analysis of the studies published in the last 10 years.
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ABSTRACT: The term "conditionally essential" (or semi-essential), initially applied to amino acids, has been generalized to other nutrients. A conditionally essential nutrient is a compound usually produced in adequate amounts by endogenous synthesis but that is exogenously required under certain circumstances. Thus, arginine, glutamine, cysteine, glycine, carnitine, choline, and polyamines are conditionally essential compounds. In addition, dietary nucleotides are considered semi-essential since some rapidly growing tissues such as the gut, bone marrow, and lymphocytes, preferentially use preformed purine and pyrimidine bases for nucleic acid synthesis. This review discusses the study of conditionally essential nitrogenous nutrients of interest in clinical nutrition. Among them we highlight arginine, involved in endothelial, immune, gastrointestinal, and renal functions, in reproduction, neonatal development, wound healing, and tumorigenicity; glutamine, necessary for maintaining bowel integrity, and with beneficial effects on catabolic states such as sepsis, infection, trauma, and cancer; and nucleotides, implicated in cell growth and differentiation, and with various effects on lipid metabolism, intestinal microbiota, and immune system.Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 06/2006; 21 Suppl 2:14-27, 15-29.