Predictors of compliance in mass drug administration for the treatment and prevention of lymphatic filariasis in Leogane, Haiti.
ABSTRACT The global strategy for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) to interrupt transmission. Noncompliance with MDA represents a serious programmatic obstacle for the LF program because systematically noncompliant individuals may serve as a reservoir for the parasite and permit recrudescence of infection. Using a survey questionnaire concerning practices, beliefs, and attitudes towards MDA, we assessed differences between noncompliant individuals and compliant individuals in Leogane, Haiti (n = 367) after four years of treatment. A logistic regression model showed the odds of being noncompliant were significantly increased for women (odds ratio = 2.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-6.70), as well as for people who lacked knowledge about both LF and programs to eliminate infection. Public health programs should be designed to target people who are at risk for systematic noncompliance.
Article: A community-based study of factors associated with continuing transmission of lymphatic filariasis in Leogane, Haiti.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Seven rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) have been administered in Leogane, Haiti, an area hyperendemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF). Sentinel site surveys showed that the prevalence of microfilaremia was reduced to <1% from levels as high as 15.5%, suggesting that transmission had been reduced. A separate 30-cluster survey of 2- to 4-year-old children was conducted to determine if MDA interrupted transmission. Antigen and antifilarial antibody prevalence were 14.3% and 19.7%, respectively. Follow-up surveys were done in 6 villages, including those selected for the cluster survey, to assess risk factors related to continued LF transmission and to pinpoint hotspots of transmission. One hundred houses were mapped in each village using GPS-enabled PDAs, and then 30 houses and 10 alternates were chosen for testing. All individuals in selected houses were asked to participate in a short survey about participation in MDA, history of residence in Leogane and general knowledge of LF. Survey teams returned to the houses at night to collect blood for antigen testing, microfilaremia and Bm14 antibody testing and collected mosquitoes from these communities in parallel. Antigen prevalence was highly variable among the 6 villages, with the highest being 38.2% (Dampus) and the lowest being 2.9% (Corail Lemaire); overall antigen prevalence was 18.5%. Initial cluster surveys of 2- to 4-year-old children were not related to community antigen prevalence. Nearest neighbor analysis found evidence of clustering of infection suggesting that LF infection was focal in distribution. Antigen prevalence among individuals who were systematically noncompliant with the MDAs, i.e. they had never participated, was significantly higher than among compliant individuals (p<0.05). A logistic regression model found that of the factors examined for association with infection, only noncompliance was significantly associated with infection. Thus, continuing transmission of LF seems to be linked to rates of systematic noncompliance.PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 01/2010; 4(3):e640. · 4.69 Impact Factor
Article: How endemic countries can accelerate lymphatic filariasis elimination? An analytical review to identify strategic and programmatic interventions.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is endemic in 81 countries in the world, and a number of these countries have targeted for LF elimination. This review of literature and analysis was conducted to identify additional and sustainable strategies to accelerate LF elimination from endemic countries. This review noted that adverse events due to mass drug administration (MDA) of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) tablets, poor knowledge and information about LF amongst health workers & community members, and limited focus on information, education & communication (IEC) activities and interpersonal communication are the major barriers in LF elimination. The new approaches to increase compliance with DEC tablets (including exploring the possibility for DEC fortification of salt), targeted education programmes for physicians and health workers, and IEC material and inter personal communication to improve the knowledge of community are immediately required. There is a renewed and pressing need to conduct operational research, evolve sustainable and institutional mechanisms for education of physicians and health workers, ensure quality of trainings on MDA, strengthen IEC delivery mechanisms, implement internal and external monitoring of MDA activities, sufficient funding in timely manner, and to improve political and programmatic leadership. It is also time that lessons from other elimination programmes are utilized to accelerate targeted LF elimination from the endemic countries.Journal of vector borne diseases 03/2011; 48(1):1-6. · 1.18 Impact Factor
Article: Secondary mapping of lymphatic filariasis in haiti-definition of transmission foci in low-prevalence settings.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To eliminate Lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that any area with infection prevalence greater than or equal to 1% (denoted by presence of microfilaremia or antigenemia) should receive mass drug administration (MDA) of antifilarial drugs for at least five consecutive rounds. Areas of low-antigen prevalence (<1%) are thought to pose little risk for continued transmission of LF. Five low-antigen prevalence communes in Haiti, characterized as part of a national survey, were further assessed for transmission in this study. An initial evaluation of schoolchildren was performed in each commune to identify antigen-positive children who served as index cases for subsequent community surveys conducted among households neighboring the index cases. Global positioning system (GPS) coordinates and immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for filarial antigenemia were collected on approximately 1,600 persons of all ages in the five communes. The relationship between antigen-positive cases in the community and distance from index cases was evaluated using multivariate regression techniques and analyses of spatial clustering. Community surveys demonstrated higher antigen prevalence in three of the five communes than was observed in the original mapping survey; autochthonous cases were found in the same three communes. Regression techniques identified a significantly increased likelihood of being antigen-positive when living within 20 meters of index cases when controlling for age, gender, and commune. Spatial clustering of antigen-positive cases was observed in some, but not all communes. Our results suggest that localized transmission was present even in low-prevalence settings and suggest that better surveillance methods may be needed to detect microfoci of LF transmission.PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10/2012; 6(10):e1807. · 4.69 Impact Factor