HLA-B*5701 screening for hypersensitivity to abacavir
ABSTRACT Hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir is strongly associated with the presence of the HLA-B*5701 allele. This study was designed to establish the effectiveness of prospective HLA-B*5701 screening to prevent the hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir.
This double-blind, prospective, randomized study involved 1956 patients from 19 countries, who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and who had not previously received abacavir. We randomly assigned patients to undergo prospective HLA-B*5701 screening, with exclusion of HLA-B*5701-positive patients from abacavir treatment (prospective-screening group), or to undergo a standard-of-care approach of abacavir use without prospective HLA-B*5701 screening (control group). All patients who started abacavir were observed for 6 weeks. To immunologically confirm, and enhance the specificity of, the clinical diagnosis of hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir, we performed epicutaneous patch testing with the use of abacavir.
The prevalence of HLA-B*5701 was 5.6% (109 of 1956 patients). Of the patients receiving abacavir, 72% were men, 84% were white, and 18% had not previously received antiretroviral therapy. Screening eliminated immunologically confirmed hypersensitivity reaction (0% in the prospective-screening group vs. 2.7% in the control group, P<0.001), with a negative predictive value of 100% and a positive predictive value of 47.9%. Hypersensitivity reaction was clinically diagnosed in 93 patients, with a significantly lower incidence in the prospective-screening group (3.4%) than in the control group (7.8%) (P<0.001).
HLA-B*5701 screening reduced the risk of hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir. In predominantly white populations, similar to the one in this study, 94% of patients do not carry the HLA-B*5701 allele and are at low risk for hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir. Our results show that a pharmacogenetic test can be used to prevent a specific toxic effect of a drug. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00340080.)
SourceAvailable from: Henry Mwambi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been effective in reducing HIV/AIDS related morbidity and mortality. However, the use and uptake of ART has resulted in adverse reactions, due mainly to the medicine's toxicity and interactions with other medicines. The timing of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among these patients is a critical public health issue for antiretroviral (ARV) treatment adherence and retention. Reliable monitoring of HIV patients on ART is through a structured pharmacovigilance surveillance system. However, recurrent nature of these data pose challenges in their analyses. This study aimed at modelling the timing of ADR events in HIV patients on ART using correlated time-to-event models. The data concern 590 HIV patients registered onto the Medunsa National ARV Pharmacovigilance Surveillance System within 6 months of ART initiation between February 2007 and July 2011. Recurrent times of ADRs and baseline characteristics: patient gender, and age, ART regimen, clinic and initiation period were extracted from the data. The recurrent ADR events data were modelled using both shared frailty and marginal models on the five patients' characteristics as covariates. Out of 590 patients, 67% were female, 68% started on regimen: Stavudine, Lamivudine and Efavirenz; 37% had experienced at least one ADR and 67% started ART in 2009-2011. Age (p-value = 0.0210), clinic (p-value < 0.0001) and period of ART initiation (p-value = 0.0002) were significantly associated with timing of first ADR. There was a significantly higher rates of ADR recurrences in patients aged 38-44 years [HR = 2.45; 95% CI = (1.47; 4.10)] vs. 30 years and less, patients taking regimen: Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevarapine) vs. regimen: Stavudine, Lamivudine and Efavirenz [HR = 2.09; 95% CI = (1.35; 3.22)], while the rate was lower among those who started ART in 2009-2011 vs. those who initiated in 2007-2008 [HR = 0.55; 95% CI = (0.40; 0.76)]. More realistic time-to-event models for recurrent events data have been used to analyse timing of ADR events in HIV patients taking ARV treatment. Age, antiretroviral regimen type and period of initiation of ART were associated with the timing of HIV/AIDS drug related adverse reactions regardless of the analysis model used. This study has public health policy implications in addressing the added morbidity among HIV patients taking ARV treatment in the context of universal scaling up of ARV treatment.AIDS Research and Therapy 03/2015; 12(1):6. DOI:10.1186/s12981-015-0044-0 · 1.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite early predictions and rapid progress in research, the introduction of personal genomics into clinical practice has been slow. Several factors contribute to this translational gap between knowledge and clinical application. The evidence available to support genetic test use is often limited, and implementation of new testing programs can be challenging. In addition, the heterogeneity of genomic risk information points to the need for strategies to select and deliver the information most appropriate for particular clinical needs. Accomplishing these tasks also requires recognition that some expectations for personal genomics are unrealistic, notably expectations concerning the clinical utility of genomic risk assessment for common complex diseases. Efforts are needed to improve the body of evidence addressing clinical outcomes for genomics, apply implementation science to personal genomics, and develop realistic goals for genomic risk assessment. In addition, translational research should emphasize the broader benefits of genomic knowledge, including applications of genomic research that provide clinical benefit outside the context of personal genomic risk.PLoS Genetics 02/2015; 11(2):e1004978. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004978 · 8.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The current standard of care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment is a three-drug regimen containing a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, a protease inhibitor, or an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) plus two nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Given their potency, safety, and distinctive mechanism of action, INSTIs represent an important advance in HIV type 1 (HIV-1) therapy. Dolutegravir (DTG) is a new-generation INSTI recently approved for the treatment of HIV-1-infected adult patients, with distinct advantages compared with other available antiretroviral agents. In well-designed, large clinical trials, DTG-containing regimens have demonstrated either noninferiority or superiority to current first-line agents such as raltegravir-, darunavir/ritonavir-, and efavirenz-containing regimens. The favorable safety profile, low potential for drug interactions, minimal impact on lipids, good tolerability, and high resistance barrier of DTG makes this compound one of the preferred choices for HIV therapy in multiple clinical scenarios, including treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients. DTG is the only antiretroviral drug not yet associated with de novo emergence of resistance mutations in treatment-naïve individuals. However, data from in vitro studies and clinical trial suggest the possibility of cross-resistance between first- and second-generation INSTIs. Even though these profiles are infrequent at the moment, they need to be monitored in all current patients treated with INSTIs. With its potent activity, good tolerability, simplicity of dosing, and minimal drug interaction profile, DTG will likely play a major role in the management of patients with HIV-1 infection. On the basis of clinical trial data, current guidelines endorse DTG in combination with nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors as one of the recommended regimens in antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients. Most of the favorable clinical experiences from clinical trials are based on the combination of DTG with abacavir/lamivudine, and DTG is planned to be coformulated with abacavir/lamivudine. This will provide a further advantage, given that single tablet regimens are associated with higher adherence rates as well as improvement in quality of life and enhanced patient preference.Patient Preference and Adherence 02/2015; 9:299-310. DOI:10.2147/PPA.S65199 · 1.49 Impact Factor