Depressive symptoms moderate the influence of hostility on serum interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein.
ABSTRACT Recent evidence suggests that depressive symptoms and hostility may act together, as interacting factors, to have an effect on the circulating levels of inflammatory markers relevant to coronary artery disease. Further research, however, is needed to clarify the nature of this interaction and to determine whether previous findings extend to older adults. In this report we examined the cross-sectional associations of depressive symptoms, hostility, and their interaction with circulating levels of two such inflammatory markers-interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP).
A total of 316 healthy, older adults underwent a blood draw for the assessment of serum IL-6 and CRP and completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale. Regression analyses were performed to examine depressive symptoms, hostility, and their interaction as predictors of serum IL-6 and CRP.
After adjustment for demographic factors, cardiovascular risk factors, and health behaviors, we detected depressive symptoms x hostility interactions for serum IL-6 (DeltaR(2) = .027, p < .01) and CRP (DeltaR(2) = .015, p < .05). Simple slope analyses revealed that hostility was positively related to serum IL-6 only among individuals with higher depressive symptoms. The pattern of results was similar for serum CRP, although none of the simple slopes was significant.
Our findings suggest that depressive symptoms may moderate the hostility-inflammation relationship such that hostility may augment inflammatory processes relevant to coronary artery disease only in the presence of depressive symptoms. Our results also extend previous findings from younger adults to older adults from the general community.
Article: Hostility and physiological responses to laboratory stress in acute coronary syndrome patients.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that emotional stress can trigger acute coronary syndromes in patients with advanced coronary artery disease (CAD), although the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Hostility is associated with heightened reactivity to stress in healthy individuals, and with an elevated risk of adverse cardiac events in CAD patients. This study set out to test whether hostile individuals with advanced CAD were also more stress responsive. Thirty-four men (aged 55.9+/-9.3 years) who had recently survived an acute coronary syndrome took part in laboratory testing. Trait hostility was assessed by the Cook Medley Hostility Scale, and cardiovascular activity, salivary cortisol, and plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 were assessed at baseline, during performance of two mental tasks, and during a 2-h recovery. Participants with higher hostility scores had heightened systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) reactivity to tasks (both P<.05), as well as a more sustained increase in systolic BP at 2 h post-task (P=.024), independent of age, BMI, smoking status, medication, and baseline BP. Hostility was also associated with elevated plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels at 75 min (P=.023) and 2 h (P=.016) poststress and was negatively correlated with salivary cortisol at 75 min (P=.034). Hostile individuals with advanced cardiovascular disease may be particularly susceptible to stress-induced increases in sympathetic activity and inflammation. These mechanisms may contribute to an elevated risk of emotionally triggered cardiac events in such patients.Journal of psychosomatic research 02/2010; 68(2):109-16. · 2.91 Impact Factor