Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Tribulus Terrestris L. growing in Iraq

Department of Biology, College of Education, University of Mosul, Mosul-00964, Iraq.
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B (Impact Factor: 1.29). 03/2008; 9(2):154-9. DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B0720251
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Antimicrobial activity of organic and aqueous extracts from fruits, leaves and roots of Tribulus terrestris L., an Iraqi medicinal plant used as urinary anti-infective in folk medicine, was examined against 11 species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using microdilution method in 96 multiwell microtiter plates. All the extracts from the different parts of the plant showed antimicrobial activity against most tested microorganisms. The most active extract against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was ethanol extract from the fruits with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.15 mg/ml against B. subtilis, B. cereus, P. vulgaris and C. diphtheriae. In addition, the same extract from the same plant part demonstrated the strongest antifungal activity against C. albicans with an MIC value of 0.15 mg/ml.

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    • "Tannins also inhibit the cell protein synthesis (Bagyalakshmi et al., 2009). Polyphenols are an antioxidant agent that protects the tissue against oxidative stress (Firas and Hassan, 2008). "
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    • "There is a need to search for new infection-fighting strategies to control microbial infections. Several studies have been carried out on various medicinal plants screening for their antimicrobial activity (Firas et al., 2008; Yoshikawa et al., 2008; Morales et al., 2008; Parekh and Chanda, 2007; Pesewu et al., 2008). Past two decades, antibacterial properties of various plants and plant parts like root, stem, leaves, seeds and flowers have been well documented for some of the medicinal plants (Nandagopal et al., 2007; Parekh and Chanda, 2007; Akinpelum and Onakoya 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Ninety-nine aqueous, ethanolic and n-hexane extracts of thirty three medicinal plants from twenty six families used in the unani system of medicines in Pakistan were tested against ten commonly prevalent gram negative and gram positive bacteria's particularly the enteric pathogens and yeast using agar diffusion disc method for their antimicrobial activity. Aqueous, ethanolic and n-hexane extracts of fifteen medicinal plants have no activity while other 18 plants have moderate to good antimicrobial activity. The aqueous and alcoholic extract of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Allium sativum Linn., Embelia ribes Burm. f. Mallotus phillippensis Muell., Picrorrhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth., Ricinus communis Linn., Elaeagnus hortensis M. Bieb., Swertia chirata Buch. Ham. and exhibited good activity against all or most of the microorganisms. The alcoholic extracts of Solanum nigrum Linn, Centella asiatica Linn, Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl., Oxtostagia limbata Benth., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Polygonum viviparum Linn. have moderate activity against some of the microbial strains. Antibacterial activity of some of the plant extracts can be compared with some antibiotics. This shows that Pakistan has a rich flora, having good potential of antimicrobial agents which can be used as a substitute of antibiotics and need for investigation of unexplored flora and screening for new antimicrobial agents.
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    • "However, the last few years have seen a major increase in their use especially in the developed world. There is a growing interest in correlating the phytochemical constituents of a medicinal plant with its pharmacological activity (Costa et al., 2008; Al-Bayati and Al-Mola, 2008). Screening active compounds from plants has lead to the discovery of new medicinal drugs which have shown efficient protective power and treatment roles against various chronic diseases (Fabricant and Fansworth, 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aims to investigate crude n-hexane, diethyl ether (Et 2O), ethanol (EtOH) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) extracts of Cosmos caudatus Kunth leaves for their antimicrobial potential against 5 microbial strains comprising 2 Gram positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, 2 Gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 1 fungi: Candida albicans by the disc diffusion method. Preliminary antimicrobial screening showed inhibition by the n-hexane, diethyl ether, and ethanol extracts against all the tested microbes, however the phosphate buffered saline extract was inactive against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. MIC values ranging from 6.25 - 25 mg/ml for the tested crude extracts were obtained by the microtiter plate method. This study showed that the crude extracts of the leaves of C. caudatus Kunth. could be potential source of new antimicrobial agents especially to treat infections caused by the tested microbial strains and confirms its utility in folk medicines.
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