Risk factors for sub-clinical and major postpartum depression among a community cohort of Canadian women.
ABSTRACT To identify prenatal and perinatal factors that predict women at risk of sub-clinical and major postpartum depression among a cohort of low medical risk pregnant women in Canada.
Data from 1,403 women who completed a randomized controlled trial of supplementary support during pregnancy was analyzed to identify risk factors for sub-clinical and major postpartum depression. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), completed at eight weeks postpartum, was used to classify each woman's depression symptom severity. Demographic, obstetric, behavioral risk, mental health and psychosocial factors were considered. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors most predictive of sub-clinical and major postpartum depression.
After adjustment for other covariates, variables that increased the risk of sub-clinical postpartum depression included a history of depression (OR = 2.27, CI = 1.42-3.63), anxiety symptoms during pregnancy (OR = 2.12, CI = 1.09-4.11), being born outside Canada (OR = 1.87, CI = 1.17-3.00), and low parenting self-efficacy (OR = 1.65, CI = 1.06-2.55). Variables that increased the risk of major postpartum depression included a history of depression (OR = 2.78, CI = 1.56-4.97), being born outside Canada (OR = 2.97, CI = 1.70-5.17), depressive symptoms during pregnancy (OR = 2.83, CI = 1.29-6.19) and not breastfeeding at eight weeks postpartum (OR = 2.12, CI = 1.21-3.70).
A history of depression and being born outside Canada predicted women who were at an increased risk of sub-clinical and major postpartum depression. The remaining risk factors specific to sub-clinical and major postpartum depression suggest some differences between women vulnerable to sub-clinical compared to major depressive symptoms in the postpartum period, which may have implications for targeted screening and intervention strategies.
- SourceAvailable from: Philip Boyce[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Postnatal depression affects up to 15% of women in the six months following childbirth. Risk factors for this disorder are predominantly psychosocial. An overview of sociodemographic, early life experiences, external environment, internal environment and obstetric and infant variables are presented in the introduction. Two studies that recruited women shortly after they had given birth and followed up to six months postpartum are used to demonstrate the salience of such risk factors. The importance of clarifying risk factors to postnatal depression are discussed especially in relation to improving our understanding of the mechanisms of postnatal depression, how they may assist in developing preventative strategies and how they can help in planning treatment.Archives of Women s Mental Health 09/2003; 6 Suppl 2:S43-50. · 1.96 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the essential structure of the lived experience of postpartum depression. Seven mothers who had suffered from postpartum depression were interviewed regarding their subjective experiences. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's (1978) method of phenomenology. Forty-five significant statements were extracted and clustered into 11 themes. These results were integrated into the essential structure of postpartum depression. Postpartum depression was a living nightmare filled with uncontrollable anxiety attacks, consuming guilt, and obsessive thinking. Mothers contemplated not only harming themselves but also their infants. The mothers were enveloped in loneliness and the quality of their lives was further compromised by a lack of emotions and all previous interests. Fear that their lives would never return to normal was all-encompassing.Nursing Research 01/1992; 41(3):166-70. · 1.50 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The authors provide a detailed clinical description of minor depression: its symptoms, level of disability, stability, and relationship to patient and family history of major depressive disorder. Rigorous criteria for minor depression, including functional disability, were used to identify 226 individuals for a three-phase treatment study. This report presents data obtained on that study group during the first study phase, a 4-week placebo lead-in period. One hundred sixty-two subjects (72% of the initial study group) remained in the study for 4 weeks and continued to meet criteria for minor depression. Minor depression in these subjects was primarily characterized by mood and cognitive symptoms, not the classical neurovegetative signs and symptoms of depression. Approximately one-third of the subjects with minor depression had a past history of major depressive disorder, and nearly half had a family history of unipolar depressive disorder; however, neither factor affected the severity or quality of minor depressive symptoms. These data suggest that 1) minor depression is not evanescent; 2) minor depression is characterized by mood and cognitive symptoms rather than neurovegetative symptoms; 3) minor depression may occur either independently of a lifetime history of major depressive disorder or as a stage of illness in the course of recurrent unipolar depressive disorder; and 4) depressive disorders should be conceptualized as a continuum of severity.American Journal of Psychiatry 05/2002; 159(4):637-43. · 13.56 Impact Factor