Epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China, 2004.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
Emerging Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6.79). 11/2007; 13(10):1470-6. DOI: 10.3201/eid1310.061423
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Results from the third nationwide cluster sampling survey on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China, conducted by the Ministry of Health in 2004, are presented. A stratified cluster random sampling technique was used, and 239 villages were selected in 7 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum remains endemic. A total of 250,987 residents 6-65 years of age were included in the survey. Estimated prevalence rates in the provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui, Yunnan, Sichuan, and Jiangsu were 4.2%, 3.8%, 3.1%, 2.2%, 1.7%, 0.9%, and 0.3%, respectively. The highest prevalence rates were in the lake and marshland region (3.8%) and the lowest rates were in the plain region with waterway networks (0.06%). Extrapolation to all residents in schistosome-endemic areas indicated 726,112 infections. This indicates a reduction of 16.1% compared with a nationwide survey conducted in 1995. However, human infection rates increased by 3.9% in settings where transmission is ongoing.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis has long been a threat to villagers in hilly and mountainous areas of southwestern China where the intermediate snail host is abundant. In recent years our group has focused on the development and parameterization of a community-level mathematical model of S. japonicum transmission that accounts for the role of environmental determinants of transmission intensity in Sichuan Province. To date the model has not incorporated acquired immunity. A review of previous epidemiologic data from our study area in Sichuan suggested modeling of acquired immunity as a function of history of infection. To explore the potential impacts on the dynamics of transmission, a mathematical representation of acquired immunity was incorporated, and parameterized based on this epidemiological evidence. It is shown through simulation that the effect of immunity is to reduce the rate of worm development and thereby lower the endemic level significantly. The effect was more striking at increasing levels of a village's basic reproductive number, . Further, residual immunity modestly alters the threshold of external parasite input necessary to trigger re-emergence of transmission and its subsequent rate of development. Despite limitations in our quantitative knowledge of the immunity function, these findings, along with the uncertainties in transmission dynamics at low infection levels, underscore the need for improved diagnostic methods for disease control, especially in potentially re-emergent settings.
    Acta tropica 01/2014; · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis japonica, transmitted by the intermediate host snail Oncomelania hupensis of the causative agent Schistosoma japonicum, remains a major public-health concern in China, and control of this snail is one of the major approaches used in attempts to interrupt the transmission of this neglected tropical disease. Niclosamide is currently the only commercial molluscicide available for the control of O. hupensis snails in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current sensitivity of O. hupensis to niclosamide in China. O. hupensis snails derived from 17 sampling sites from eight schistosomiasis-endemic provinces of China were used for the molluscicidal tests. Active adult snails (10 for each drug concentration), were immersed in solutions of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.063, 0.032, 0.016 and 0.008 mg/L of 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) for 24 and 48 h at 25°C, and then the snail mortality was estimated and LC50 values were calculated. All field-derived O. hupensis snails were dead following immersion in 0.5 and 1 mg/L WPN for 24 h, whereas no death was observed after immersion in 0.008 mg/L WPN for 24 h. Immersion in 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.063, 0.032 and 0.016 mg/L WPN for 24 h resulted in 80%-100%, 63.33%-100%, 0%-85%, 0%-50%, 0%-15%, and 0%-5% snail mortalities, respectively. The 24 h WPN LC50 values for the O. hupensis snails derived from the 17 sampling sites in China ranged from 0.0743 to 0.2285 mg/L, and no significant difference was detected by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p = 0.2). The results indicate that there is no regional variation in the current susceptibility to niclosamide in O. hupensis populations in China. It is suggested that the current sensitivity of niclosamide against O. hupensis remains high and has not changed after more than two decades of repeated, extensive application for snail control in the main endemic areas of China.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 01/2014; 11(3):3086-95. · 2.00 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis japonica and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are endemic parasitic diseases in the People’s Republic of China (PR China). As very few studies have reported on the distribution and interaction of multiple species helminth infections, we carried out a comparative study of households in a rural village and a peri-urban setting in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan province in November and December 2006 to determine the extent of single and multiple species infections, the underlying risk factors for infection, and the relationships with clinical manifestations and self-reported morbidity. In each household, stool samples were collected and subjected to the Kato-Katz method for identifying Schistosoma japonicum, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura infections. Clinical examinations were performed and questionnaire surveys conducted at both household and individual subject levels. Complete parasitological, clinical and questionnaire data were obtained for 1,298 inhabitants of the two settings. The overall prevalences of single infections of S. japonicum, A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura were 6.5%, 5.5%, 3.0% and 0.8%, respectively; the majority of the infections were of light intensity. We found significant negative associations between wealth and infections with S. japonicum and A. lumbricoides. Clinical manifestations of splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and anaemia were prevalent (9.0%, 3.7% and 10.9%, respectively), the latter two being significantly (P < 0.05) associated with schistosomiasis. Self-reported symptoms were more common among females but there was considerable under-reporting in both sexes when relying only on spontaneous recall. Our findings may guide the design and targeting of a more equitable, comprehensive and integrated parasitic disease control programme in Hunan province and in other areas of PR China.Graphical abstractView high quality image (132K)Highlights► Prevalences of Schistosoma japonicum, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 6.5%, 5.5% and 3.0%, respectively. ► Infections with S. japonicum and A. lumbricoides showed a significant negative association with wealth. ► Self-reported symptoms were more common among females and under-reported when relying only on spontaneous recall. ► Our findings may guide the design of a more equitable, comprehensive and integrated parasite control program in PR China.
    International journal for parasitology 08/2011; 41(11):1165-1173. · 3.39 Impact Factor


Available from