Post-bedtime dosing with indiplon in adults and the elderly: results from two placebo-controlled, active comparator crossover studies in healthy volunteers*
ABSTRACT To assess the effects of post-bedtime dosing with indiplon on next-day function in adults and the elderly.
Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover studies were conducted in two groups of healthy volunteers: an adult study (18-45 years) and an elderly study (65-80 years). In adults, a single post-bedtime dose of indiplon 10 mg and 20 mg was compared to placebo, with zolpidem 10 mg and zopiclone 7.5 mg included as controls. In the elderly, a single post-bedtime dose of indiplon 5 mg and 10 mg was compared to placebo, with zopiclone 3.75 mg included as a control. Next-day residual effects were evaluated in the morning at 4 and 6 h post-dose in adults, and 4, 6, and 8 h in the elderly, by a Visual Analog Scale of sleepiness (VAS-sleepiness), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and the Symbol Copying Test (SCT).
In adults, there were no statistically significant differences between indiplon and placebo on the VAS-sleepiness, DSST, or SCT at any time-point for either dose. In contrast, a significant increase versus placebo in VAS-sleepiness was observed for both zopiclone (at 4 and 6 h post-dose; p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively) and zolpidem (at 4 h post-dose; p = 0.042). In the elderly, there were no statistically significant differences between indiplon 5 mg and placebo on the VAS-sleepiness, DSST, or SCT at any time-point. DSST was significantly reduced for indiplon 10 mg versus placebo at 4 h only (p = 0.022), compared with a significant reduction in DSST for zopiclone at both 4 and 8 h post-dose (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). In adults, the overall incidence of adverse events was higher on zopiclone compared to indiplon, zolpidem, and placebo. In the elderly, the incidence of adverse events was similar for indiplon, zopiclone, and placebo. Potential limitations of the current study include recruitment of healthy volunteers and the use of a limited pharmacodynamic battery.
Indiplon, at doses of 10 mg in adults and 5 mg in the elderly, was not associated with next day residual sedation or impairment in simple cognitive and psychomotor tasks when administered during the night 4 h prior to awakening.
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ABSTRACT: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy data, and adverse effects of indiplon in the treatment of transient and chronic insomnia in adult and geriatric patients. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1966-May 2008), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-May 2008), and Cochrane database (2007) for the key words indiplon or NBI-34060. References cited in the articles were reviewed for additional information. Abstract data were included only in the absence of significant published data. English-language literature reporting animal and human clinical studies was reviewed to evaluate data on the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and adverse effects of indiplon. Clinical trials selected for inclusion were limited to those with human subjects, with the accepted inclusion of pharmacology data in animals. Indiplon is a nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic that exhibits its sedating activity through its interaction with the gamma-aminobutyric acid alpha receptor complex. Indiplon immediate-release (IR) as well as modified-release (MR) forms have shown improvement compared with placebo in patients with DSM-IV-TR primary insomnia in various areas of subjective and objective sleep measurements. Specifically, improvements in total sleep time, latency to persistent sleep, latency to sleep onset, wake after sleep onset, and sleep quality have been noted in clinical trials. Trials evaluating both indiplon IR and MR have so far not identified any major serious adverse effects. Limited clinical trial data exist on use of indiplon in a "true" transient insomnia patient population. Based on recent Food and Drug Administration requests, clinical trial data assessing direct comparisons of indiplon IR with other approved nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics are needed to clearly define the differences among these agents.Annals of Pharmacotherapy 08/2008; 42(7):1070-9. DOI:10.1345/aph.1K683 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Indiplon is a novel pyrazolopyrimidine, nonbenzodiazepine gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist studied for the treatment of insomnia. This article reviews the chemistry, pharmacology, clinical pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, clinical trials, safety, tolerability, contraindications, use in special populations, and dosing of indiplon. OVID, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), and PubMed databases were searched (1966 to February 2009) for the keywords indiplon, NBI-34060, and insomnia. References of key articles were also reviewed to identify additional publications. Only English language articles were selected for review. Indiplon has been shown to have high affinity and selectivity for the GABAalpha(1) receptor subunit associated with sedation. In clinical studies, indiplon has demonstrated efficacy in improving latency to sleep onset, latency to persistent sleep, total sleep time, wake time after sleep onset, number of awakenings after sleep onset, and overall sleep quality when compared to placebo. Indiplon has a favorable safety profile with limited rebound insomnia and no tolerance. Neurocrine Biosciences, Incorporated received an Approvable Letter from the United States Food and Drug Administration in December 2007 for the indiplon IR 5 mg and 10 mg capsules based on meeting three additional requirements. At the time of this writing, indiplon remains unapproved.Drug Design, Development and Therapy 09/2009; 3:131-42. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An estimated one-third of the general population is affected by insomnia, and this number is increasing due to more stressful working conditions and the progressive aging of society. However, current treatment of insomnia with hypnotics, gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptor modulators, induces various side effects, including cognitive impairment, motor disturbance, dependence, tolerance, hangover, and rebound insomnia. Ramelteon (Rozerem; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Osaka, Japan) is an orally active, highly selective melatonin MT(1)/MT(2) receptor agonist. Unlike the sedative hypnotics that target GABA(A) receptor complexes, ramelteon is a chronohypnotic that acts on the melatonin MT(1) and MT(2) receptors, which are primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the body's "master clock." As such, ramelteon possesses the first new therapeutic mechanism of action for a prescription insomnia medication in over three decades. Ramelteon has demonstrated sleep-promoting effects in clinical trials, and coupled with its favorable safety profile and lack of abuse potential or dependence, this chronohypnotic provides an important treatment option for insomnia.CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 02/2009; 15(1):32-51. DOI:10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00066.x · 3.78 Impact Factor