Post-bedtime dosing with indiplon in adults and the elderly: results from two placebo-controlled, active comparator crossover studies in healthy volunteers.
ABSTRACT To assess the effects of post-bedtime dosing with indiplon on next-day function in adults and the elderly.
Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover studies were conducted in two groups of healthy volunteers: an adult study (18-45 years) and an elderly study (65-80 years). In adults, a single post-bedtime dose of indiplon 10 mg and 20 mg was compared to placebo, with zolpidem 10 mg and zopiclone 7.5 mg included as controls. In the elderly, a single post-bedtime dose of indiplon 5 mg and 10 mg was compared to placebo, with zopiclone 3.75 mg included as a control. Next-day residual effects were evaluated in the morning at 4 and 6 h post-dose in adults, and 4, 6, and 8 h in the elderly, by a Visual Analog Scale of sleepiness (VAS-sleepiness), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and the Symbol Copying Test (SCT).
In adults, there were no statistically significant differences between indiplon and placebo on the VAS-sleepiness, DSST, or SCT at any time-point for either dose. In contrast, a significant increase versus placebo in VAS-sleepiness was observed for both zopiclone (at 4 and 6 h post-dose; p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively) and zolpidem (at 4 h post-dose; p = 0.042). In the elderly, there were no statistically significant differences between indiplon 5 mg and placebo on the VAS-sleepiness, DSST, or SCT at any time-point. DSST was significantly reduced for indiplon 10 mg versus placebo at 4 h only (p = 0.022), compared with a significant reduction in DSST for zopiclone at both 4 and 8 h post-dose (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). In adults, the overall incidence of adverse events was higher on zopiclone compared to indiplon, zolpidem, and placebo. In the elderly, the incidence of adverse events was similar for indiplon, zopiclone, and placebo. Potential limitations of the current study include recruitment of healthy volunteers and the use of a limited pharmacodynamic battery.
Indiplon, at doses of 10 mg in adults and 5 mg in the elderly, was not associated with next day residual sedation or impairment in simple cognitive and psychomotor tasks when administered during the night 4 h prior to awakening.
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ABSTRACT: Pineal hormone melatonin is widely used in the treatment of disorders of circadian rhythms. The presence of melatonin receptors in various animal tissues motivates the use of this hormone in some other diseases. For this reason, in recent years investigators continued the search for synthetic analogues of melatonin which are metabolically stable and selective to receptors. This review includes recent information about the most famous melatonin analogues, their structure, properties, and physiological features of the interaction with melatonin receptors.01/2014; 2014:1-11. DOI:10.1155/2014/843478
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ABSTRACT: Therapeutic drugs for cognitive and psychiatric disorders are often characterized by their molecular mechanism of action. Here we demonstrate a new approach to elucidate drug action on large-scale neuronal activity by tracking somatic calcium dynamics in hundreds of CA1 hippocampal neurons of pharmacologically manipulated behaving mice. We used an adeno-associated viral vector to express the calcium sensor GCaMP3 in CA1 pyramidal cells under control of the CaMKII promoter and a miniaturized microscope to observe cellular dynamics. We visualized these dynamics with and without a systemic administration of Zolpidem, a GABAA agonist that is the most commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of insomnia in the United States. Despite growing concerns about the potential adverse effects of Zolpidem on memory and cognition, it remained unclear whether Zolpidem alters neuronal activity in the hippocampus, a brain area critical for cognition and memory. Zolpidem, when delivered at a dose known to induce and prolong sleep, strongly suppressed CA1 calcium signaling. The rate of calcium transients after Zolpidem administration was significantly lower compared to vehicle treatment. To factor out the contribution of changes in locomotor or physiological conditions following Zolpidem treatment, we compared the cellular activity across comparable epochs matched by locomotor and physiological assessments. This analysis revealed significantly depressive effects of Zolpidem regardless of the animal’s state. Individual hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells differed in their responses to Zolpidem with the majority (~65%) significantly decreasing the rate of calcium transients, and a small subset (3%) showing an unexpected and significant increase. By linking molecular mechanisms with the dynamics of neural circuitry and behavioral states, this approach has the potential to contribute substantially to the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of CNS disorders.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112068. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112068 · 3.53 Impact Factor