Early changes in adipokine levels and baseline limb fat may predict HIV lipoatrophy over 2 years following initiation of antiretroviral therapy.
ABSTRACT No biological marker has been identified that predicts the development of lipodystrophy (LD). We investigated whether metabolic and body composition parameters could predict the development of LD over 2 years in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART).
We used stored plasma collected at baseline and weeks 12, 24 and 48 from adults initiating combination ART. Adipocytokine, inflammatory cytokine, lipid and glycaemic parameters were measured and related to subsequent lipoatrophy (loss of limb fat mass of at least 2 kg from weeks 24 to 96 by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and an increase in visceral adipose tissue (VAT; an increase of at least 18 cm(2) from baseline to week 48 by abdominal computed tomography). Risk factors associated with limb fat loss and VAT gain were analysed by logistic regression.
Fifty-four HIV-infected, treatment-naïve adults were included in the study: 53 (98%) of them were men, and they had a median age of 39 years [interquartile range (IQR) 34-48 years] and a median body mass index of 22.6 kg/m(2) (IQR 20-24.8 kg/m(2)). In multivariate analysis, a higher baseline limb fat percentage, and a 1 mmol/L increase in plasma leptin levels during the first 6 months of ART, independently predicted a peripheral fat loss of > or = 2 kg [odds ratio (OR) 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-6.41; OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.34-7.35, respectively). VAT changes showed a borderline association with high baseline tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels and hip circumference (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.07; OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.95, respectively).
In ART-naïve men, higher baseline limb fat and an early increase in leptin concentrations may predict the subsequent development of lipoatrophy. We did not find the same risk factors in the two different groups of patients with peripheral fat loss and central fat gain, suggesting a partially independent pathogenesis.
Article: Epidemiology, assessment, and management of excess abdominal fat in persons with HIV infection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Metabolic and morphologic abnormalities in persons with HIV remain common contributors to stigma and morbidity. Increased abdominal circumference and visceral adiposity were first recognized in the late 1990s, soon after the advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy. Visceral adiposity is commonly associated with metabolic abnormalities including low HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, insulin resistance, and hypertension, a constellation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus known as "the metabolic syndrome". Medline and conference abstracts were searched to identify clinical research on factors associated with visceral adiposity and randomized studies of management approaches. Data were critically reviewed by physicians familiar with the field. A range of host and lifestyle factors as well as antiretroviral drug choice were associated with increased visceral adiposity. Management approaches included treatment switching and metformin, both of which have shown benefit for insulin-resistant individuals with isolated fat accumulation. Testosterone supplements may also have benefits in a subset of individuals. Supra-physiological doses of recombinant human growth hormone and the growth hormone releasing hormone analog tesamorelin both significantly and selectively reduce visceral fat over 12-24 weeks; however, the benefits are only maintained if doping is continued. In summary, the prevention and management of visceral adiposity remains a substantial challenge in clinical practice.AIDS reviews 12(1):3-14. · 3.51 Impact Factor