Transient infection of freshly isolated human colorectal tumor cells by reovirus T3D intermediate subviral particles.
ABSTRACT Reovirus T3D preferentially kills tumor cells expressing Ras oncogenes and has shown great promise as an anticancer agent in various preclinical tumor models. Here, we investigated whether reovirus can infect and kill tumor cell cultures and tissue fragments isolated from resected human colorectal tumors, and whether this was affected by the presence of endogenous oncogenic KRAS. Tissue fragments and single-cell populations isolated from human colorectal tumor biopsies were infected with reovirus virions or with intermediate subviral particles (ISVPs). Reovirus virions were capable of infecting neither single-cell tumor cell populations nor small fragments of intact viable tumor tissue. However, infection of tumor cells with ISVPs resulted in transient viral protein synthesis, irrespective of the presence of oncogenic KRAS, but this did not lead to the production of infectious virus particles, and tumor cell viability was largely unaffected. ISVPs failed to infect intact tissue fragments. Thermolysin treatment of tumor tissue liberated single cells from the tissue and allowed infection with ISVPs, but this did not result in the production of infectious virus particles. Immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays showed that junction adhesion molecule 1, the major cellular reovirus receptor, was improperly localized in the cytoplasm of colorectal tumor cells and was expressed at very low levels in liver metastases. This may contribute to the observed resistance of tumor cells to reovirus T3D virions. We conclude that infection of human colorectal tumor cells by reovirus T3D requires processing of virions to ISVPs, but that oncolysis is prevented by a tumor cell response that aborts viral protein synthesis and the generation of infectious viral particles, irrespective of KRAS mutation status.
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ABSTRACT: Mammalian reoviruses exhibit differences in the capacity to grow in intestinal tissue: reovirus type 1 Lang (T1L), but not type 3 Dearing (T3D), can be recovered in high titer from intestinal tissue of newborn mice after oral inoculation. We investigated whether in vitro protease treatment of virions of T1L and T3D, using conditions to generate infectious subvirion particles (ISVPs) as occurs in the intestinal lumen of mice (D. K. Bodkin, M. L. Nibert, and B. N. Fields, J. Virol. 63:4676-4681, 1989), affects viral infectivity. Chymotrypsin treatment of T1L was associated with a 2-fold increase in viral infectivity, whereas identical treatment of T3D resulted in a 10-fold decrease in infectivity. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we found that loss of T3D infectivity was correlated with cleavage of its sigma 1 protein. We used reassortant viruses to identify viral determinants of infectivity loss and sigma 1 cleavage and found that both phenotypes segregate with the sigma 1-encoding S1 gene. Comparable results were obtained when trypsin treatment of virions of T1L and T3D was used. In experiments to determine the fate of sigma 1 fragments following cleavage, the capacity of anti-sigma 1 monoclonal antibody G5 to neutralize infectivity of T3D ISVPs was significantly decreased in comparison with its capacity to neutralize infectivity of virions, suggesting that a sigma 1 domain bound by G5 is lost from viral particles after proteolytic digestion. In contrast to the decrease in infectivity, chymotrypsin treatment of T3D virions leading to generation of ISVPs resulted in a 10-fold increase in their capacity to produce hemagglutination, indicating that a domain of sigma 1 important for binding to sialic acid remains associated with viral particles after sigma 1 cleavage. Neuraminidase treatment of L cells substantially decreased the yield of T3D ISVPs in comparison with the yield of virions, indicating that a sigma 1 domain important for binding sialic acid also can mediate attachment of T3D ISVPs to L cells and lead to productive infection. These results suggest that cleavage of T3D sigma 1 protein following oral inoculation of newborn mice is at least partly responsible for the decreased growth of T3D in the intestine and provide additional evidence that T3D sigma 1 contains more than a single receptor-binding domain.Journal of Virology 09/1995; 69(8):5057-67. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reovirus, a potential cancer therapy, replicates more efficiently in Ras-transformed cells than in non-transformed cells. It was presumed that increased translation was the mechanistic basis of reovirus oncolysis. Analyses of each step of the reovirus life cycle now show that cellular processes deregulated by Ras transformation promote not one but three viral replication steps. First, in Ras-transformed cells, proteolytic disassembly (uncoating) of the incoming virions, required for onset of infection, occurs more efficiently. Consequently, threefold more Ras-transformed cells become productively infected with reovirus than non-transformed cells, which accounts for the observed increase of reovirus proteins in Ras-transformed cells. Second, Ras transformation increases the infectious-to-noninfectious virus particle ratio, as virions purified from Ras-transformed cells are fourfold more infectious than those purified from non-transformed cells. Progeny assembled in non- and Ras-transformed cells appear similar by electron microscopy and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis, suggesting that Ras transformation introduces a subtle change necessary for virus infectivity. Finally, reovirus release, mediated by caspase-induced apoptosis, is ninefold more efficient in Ras-transformed cells. The combined effects of enhanced virus uncoating, infectivity, and release result in >100-fold differences in virus titers within one round of replication. Our analysis reveals previously unrecognized mechanisms by which Ras transformation mediates selective viral oncolysis.Molecular Therapy 08/2007; 15(8):1522-30. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reovirus selectively replicates in and destroys cancer cells with an activated Ras signaling pathway. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using reovirus (serotype 3, strain Dearing) as an antihuman colon and ovarian cancer agent. In in vitro studies, reovirus infection in human colon and ovarian cell lines was assessed by cytopathic effect as detected by light microscopy, [(35)S]Methionine labeling of infected cells for viral protein synthesis and progeny virus production by plaque assay. We observed that reovirus efficiently infected all five human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, DLD-1, HCT-116, HT-29, and SW48) and four human ovarian cancer cell lines (MDAH2774, PA-1, SKOV3, and SW626) which were tested, but not a normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) or a normal ovarian cell line (NOV-31). We also observed that the Ras activity in the human colon and ovarian cancer cell lines was elevated compared with that in normal colon and ovarian cell lines. In animal models, intraneoplastic as well as i.v. inoculation of reovirus resulted in significant regression of established s.c. human colon and ovarian tumors implanted at the hind flank. Histological studies revealed that reovirus infection in vivo was restricted to tumor cells, whereas the surrounding normal tissue remained uninfected. Additionally, in an i.p. human ovarian cancer xenograft model, inhibition of ascites tumor formation and the survival of animals treated with live reovirus was significantly greater than of control mice treated with UV-inactivated reovirus. Reovirus infection in ex vivo primary human ovarian tumor surgical samples was also confirmed, further demonstrating the potential of reovirus therapy. These results suggest that reovirus holds promise as a novel agent for human colon and ovarian cancer therapy.Cancer Research 04/2002; 62(6):1696-701. · 8.65 Impact Factor