Transient infection of freshly isolated human colorectal tumor cells by reovirus T3D intermediate subviral particles.
ABSTRACT Reovirus T3D preferentially kills tumor cells expressing Ras oncogenes and has shown great promise as an anticancer agent in various preclinical tumor models. Here, we investigated whether reovirus can infect and kill tumor cell cultures and tissue fragments isolated from resected human colorectal tumors, and whether this was affected by the presence of endogenous oncogenic KRAS. Tissue fragments and single-cell populations isolated from human colorectal tumor biopsies were infected with reovirus virions or with intermediate subviral particles (ISVPs). Reovirus virions were capable of infecting neither single-cell tumor cell populations nor small fragments of intact viable tumor tissue. However, infection of tumor cells with ISVPs resulted in transient viral protein synthesis, irrespective of the presence of oncogenic KRAS, but this did not lead to the production of infectious virus particles, and tumor cell viability was largely unaffected. ISVPs failed to infect intact tissue fragments. Thermolysin treatment of tumor tissue liberated single cells from the tissue and allowed infection with ISVPs, but this did not result in the production of infectious virus particles. Immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays showed that junction adhesion molecule 1, the major cellular reovirus receptor, was improperly localized in the cytoplasm of colorectal tumor cells and was expressed at very low levels in liver metastases. This may contribute to the observed resistance of tumor cells to reovirus T3D virions. We conclude that infection of human colorectal tumor cells by reovirus T3D requires processing of virions to ISVPs, but that oncolysis is prevented by a tumor cell response that aborts viral protein synthesis and the generation of infectious viral particles, irrespective of KRAS mutation status.
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ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma (GB) is a devastating disease for which new treatment modalities are needed. Efficacious therapy requires the removal of stem-cell like cells, these cells drive tumor progression because of their ability to self-renew and differentiate. In glioblastoma, the GB stem-like cells (GSC) form a small population of tumor cells and possess high resistance to chemo and radiation therapies. To assess the sensitivity of GSC to reovirus-mediated cytolysis, a panel of GSC cultures was exposed to wild-type reovirus Type 3 Dearing (T3D) and its junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A)-independent mutant, jin-1. Several parameters were evaluated, including the fraction of cells expressing the JAM-A reovirus receptor, the fraction of cells synthesizing reovirus proteins, the number of infectious reovirus particles required to reduce cell viability, the amount of infectious progeny reovirus produced and the capacity of the reoviruses to infect the GSC in 3-dimensional (3D) tumor cell spheroids. Our data demonstrate a marked heterogeneity in the susceptibility of the cultures to reovirus-induced cytolysis. While in monolayer cultures the jin-1 reovirus was generally more cytolytic than the wild-type reovirus T3D, in the 3D GSC spheroids, these viruses were equally effective. Despite the variation in reovirus sensitivity between the different GSC cultures, our data support the use of reovirus as an oncolytic agent. It remains to be established whether the variation in the reovirus sensitivity correlates with a patient's response to reovirus therapy. Moreover, our data show that the expression of the JAM-A receptor is not a major determinant of reovirus sensitivity in 3D GSC cultures.Cancer Gene Therapy advance online publication, 2 August 2013; doi:10.1038/cgt.2013.47.Cancer gene therapy 08/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the canonical pathway, infection of cells by the wild-type mammalian orthoreovirus Type 3 Dearing (T3D) is dependent on the interaction of the viral spike protein σ1 with the high-affinity cellular receptor junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A). We previously demonstrated that the human glioblastoma cell line U-118 MG does not express JAM-A and resists reovirus T3D infection in standard cell culture conditions (SCCC). Heterologous JAM-A expression sensitises U-118 MG cells to reovirus T3D. Here we studied reovirus infection in U-118 MG cells grown in spheroid cultures with the premise that cells in such cultures resemble cells in tumours more than those grown under standard adherent cell culture conditions on a plastic surface. Although the U-118 MG cells in spheroids do not express JAM-A, they are susceptible to reovirus T3D infection. We show that this can be attributed to factors secreted by cells in the spheroids. The concentration of active extracellular proteases cathepsin B and L in the medium of spheroid cultures was increased 19- and 24-fold, respectively, as compared with SCCC. These enzymes can convert the reovirus particles into a form that can infect the U-118 MG cells independent of JAM-A. Taken together, these data demonstrate that infection of tumour cells by wild-type reovirus T3D is not strictly dependent on the expression of JAM-A on the cell surface.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 17 April 2014; doi:10.1038/gt.2014.34.Gene therapy 04/2014; · 4.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The usage of reovirus has reached phase II and III clinical trials in human cancers. However, this is the first study to report the oncolytic effects of reovirus in veterinary oncology, focusing on canine mast cell tumor (MCT), the most common cutaneous tumor in dogs. As human and canine cancers share many similarities, we hypothesized that the oncolytic effects of reovirus can be exploited in canine cancers. The objective of this study was to determine the oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine MCT in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. We demonstrated that MCT cell lines were highly susceptible to reovirus as indicated by marked cell death, high production of progeny virus and virus replication. Reovirus induced apoptosis in the canine MCT cell lines with no correlation to their Ras activation status. In vivo studies were conducted using unilateral and bilateral subcutaneous MCT xenograft models with a single intratumoral reovirus treatment and apparent reduction of tumor mass was exhibited. Furthermore, cell death was induced by reovirus in primary canine MCT samples in vitro. However, canine and murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMCMC) were also susceptible to reovirus. The combination of these results supports the potential value of reovirus as a therapy in canine MCT but warrants further investigation on the determinants of reovirus susceptibility.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e73555. · 3.53 Impact Factor