Transient infection of freshly isolated human colorectal tumor cells by reovirus T3D intermediate subviral particles.
ABSTRACT Reovirus T3D preferentially kills tumor cells expressing Ras oncogenes and has shown great promise as an anticancer agent in various preclinical tumor models. Here, we investigated whether reovirus can infect and kill tumor cell cultures and tissue fragments isolated from resected human colorectal tumors, and whether this was affected by the presence of endogenous oncogenic KRAS. Tissue fragments and single-cell populations isolated from human colorectal tumor biopsies were infected with reovirus virions or with intermediate subviral particles (ISVPs). Reovirus virions were capable of infecting neither single-cell tumor cell populations nor small fragments of intact viable tumor tissue. However, infection of tumor cells with ISVPs resulted in transient viral protein synthesis, irrespective of the presence of oncogenic KRAS, but this did not lead to the production of infectious virus particles, and tumor cell viability was largely unaffected. ISVPs failed to infect intact tissue fragments. Thermolysin treatment of tumor tissue liberated single cells from the tissue and allowed infection with ISVPs, but this did not result in the production of infectious virus particles. Immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays showed that junction adhesion molecule 1, the major cellular reovirus receptor, was improperly localized in the cytoplasm of colorectal tumor cells and was expressed at very low levels in liver metastases. This may contribute to the observed resistance of tumor cells to reovirus T3D virions. We conclude that infection of human colorectal tumor cells by reovirus T3D requires processing of virions to ISVPs, but that oncolysis is prevented by a tumor cell response that aborts viral protein synthesis and the generation of infectious viral particles, irrespective of KRAS mutation status.
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ABSTRACT: Oncolytic virotherapy with reovirus has demonstrated anti-cancer activity and minimal toxicity in clinical trials, but the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been fully elucidated. Reolysin, a proprietary formulation of reovirus for cancer therapy, stimulated selective viral replication and apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Reolysin-mediated apoptosis was associated with an induction of endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress-related gene expression, swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum, increases in intracellular calcium levels and a strong induction of the Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only pro-apoptotic protein NOXA. Knockdown of NOXA expression by short hairpin RNA significantly reduced the pro-apoptotic effects of Reolysin. We next showed that co-administration of Reolysin and bortezomib resulted in the dual accumulation of viral and ubiquitinated proteins, which led to enhanced ER stress, NOXA induction and apoptosis. Importantly, the combination of reovirus infection and proteasomal inhibition significantly decreased tumor burden in a xenograft and syngeneic bone disease model of MM without exhibiting adverse side effects. Our study establishes ER stress stimulation and NOXA induction as novel mediators of reovirus-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, reovirus infection can be used as a promising approach to augment the anti-myeloma activity of bortezomib by promoting additional stress to the endoplasmic reticulum of MM cells.Oncogene 10/2011; 31(25):3023-38. DOI:10.1038/onc.2011.478 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reovirus is an oncolytic virus (OV), which acts by both direct tumor cell killing and priming of antitumor immunity. A major obstacle for effective oncolytic virotherapy is effective delivery of OV to tumor cells. Ovarian cancer is often confined to the peritoneal cavity and therefore i.p. delivery of reovirus may provide the ideal locoregional delivery, avoiding systemic dissemination. However, ovarian cancer is associated with an accumulation of ascitic fluid, which may interfere with oncolytic viral therapy. Here, we investigated the effect of ascites on reovirus-induced oncolysis against primary ovarian cancer cells and ovarian cancer cell lines. In the absence of ascites, reovirus was cytotoxic against ovarian cancer cells; however, cytotoxicity was abrogated in the presence of ascitic fluid. Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) were identified as the cause of this inhibition. Loading OV onto cell carriers may facilitate virus delivery in the presence of NAb and immune cells which have their own antitumor effector activity are particularly appealing. Immature dendritic cells (iDC), Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and LAKDC cocultures were tested as potential carriers for reovirus for tumor cell killing and immune cell priming. Reovirus-loaded LAKDC, and to a lesser degree iDC, were able to: (i) protect from NAb and hand-off reovirus for tumor cell killing; (ii) induce a proinflammatory cytokine milieu (IFNɣ, IL-12, IFNα and TNFα) and (iii) generate an innate and specific antitumor adaptive immune response. Hence, LAKDC pulsed with reovirus represent a novel, clinically practical treatment for ovarian cancer to maximise both direct and innate/adaptive immune-mediated tumor cell killing. What’s new? Oncolytic viruses (OVs) specifically infect and kill tumor cells. In this study, the authors began to examine whether intraperitoneal delivery of an OV could be effective against ovarian cancer. They found that, while the virus does kill ovarian-cancer cells in vitro, this effect is blocked when ascites fluid is added. Cytotoxicity can be restored, however, by using a combination of lymphokine-activated killer and dendritic cells (LAKDC) as carriers, which protect the virus from neutralizing antibodies in the ascites. The LAKDC combination may also support subsequent adaptive immune priming.International Journal of Cancer 03/2014; 134(5). DOI:10.1002/ijc.28450 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As well as inducing direct oncolysis, reovirus treatment of melanoma is associated with activation of innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses. Here we characterise the effects of conditioned media from reovirus-infected, dying human melanoma cells (reoTCM), in the absence of live virus, to address the immune bystander potential of reovirus therapy. In addition to RANTES, IL-8, MIP-1α and MIP-1β, reovirus-infected melanoma cells secreted eotaxin, IP-10 and the type 1 interferon IFN-β. To address the mechanisms responsible for the inflammatory composition of reoTCM, we show that IL-8 and IFN-β secretion by reovirus-infected melanoma cells was associated with activation of NF-κB and decreased by pre-treatment with small molecule inhibitors of NF-κB and PKR; specific siRNA-mediated knockdown further confirmed a role for PKR. This pro-inflammatory milieu induced a chemotactic response in isolated natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells (DC) and anti-melanoma cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Following culture in reoTCM, NK cells upregulated CD69 expression and acquired greater lytic potential against tumour targets. Furthermore, melanoma cell-loaded DC cultured in reoTCM were more effective at priming adaptive anti-tumour immunity. These data demonstrate that the PKR- and NF-κB-dependent induction of pro-inflammatory molecules that accompanies reovirus-mediated killing can recruit and activate innate and adaptive effector cells, thus potentially altering the tumour microenvironment to support bystander immune-mediated therapy as well as direct viral oncolysis.Molecular Cancer 02/2011; 10:20. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-10-20 · 5.40 Impact Factor