Cell growth, global phosphotyrosine elevation, and c-Met phosphorylation through Src family kinases in colorectal cancer cells.
ABSTRACT The heterogeneity of cancer cell signaling is a significant obstacle for the effective development and clinical use of molecularly targeted therapies. As a contribution to a better understanding of the diversity of signaling activities in colorectal cancers (CRCs), we have analyzed the activity of Src family kinases (SFKs), which are implicated in human cancer development, in 64 CRC cell lines. A striking diversity of SFK activity was observed within this panel. Importantly, all CRC lines tested depend on SFK activity for their growth. In addition, SFK activity levels strongly correlated with global levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated (pTyr) proteins in CRC lines. SFK inhibition substantially reduced these pTyr levels, suggesting that SFKs may function as signal integration points and master controllers for the pTyr protein status in CRC lines. The majority of analyzed CRC lines with high-SFK activity express activated c-Met (pYpY1234/1235), a receptor tyrosine kinase contributing to the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Inhibition of SFKs reduced c-Met phosphorylation in most cases, indicating a reversed signal flow from SFK to c-Met. We conclude that SFK activity is important for the growth of CRC lines, although only low activity levels are required. If this also is true for CRC patients, tumors with low-SFK activity may be particularly sensitive to SFK inhibitors, and such patients should be targeted in clinical trials testing SFK inhibitors.
SourceAvailable from: Mike Russell[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prostate adenocarcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer death among men, due primarily to the fact that the majority of prostate cancers will eventually spread to the skeleton. Metastatic dissemination requires a complex series of coordinated events that result in cells that escape from the primary tumor into the cir-culation and eventually colonize a distant organ. The ability of these cells to evolve into macroscopic metas-tases depends strongly on their compatibility with, and ability to utilize, this new microenvironment. We previously showed that bone-metastatic prostate cancer cells exposed to human bone marrow respond by activation of cell survival pathways, such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt, and that these events are medi-ated by the α-receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFRα). Our studies and others have shown that PDGFRα may be activated by mechanisms independent of PDGF ligand binding. Here, we provide conclusive evidence that soluble components of human bone marrow can activate PDGFRα through a mechanism that does not require the canonical binding of PDGF ligand(s) to the receptor. In particular, we found that dimer-ization of PDGFRα monomers is not induced by human bone marrow, but this does not prevent receptor phosphorylation and downstream signaling from occurring. To establish the relevance of this phenomenon in vivo, we used a PDGFRα mutant lacking the extracellular ligand-binding domain. Our studies show that this truncated PDGFRα is able to restore bone-metastatic potential of prostate cancer cells as effectively as the full-length form of the receptor. Cancer Res; 70(10); 4195–203. ©2010 AACR.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) is known to trigger invasive growth, a physiological property for tissue healing, turning into a hallmark of progression in cancer. However, the invasive response to TNF-α relies on poorly understood molecular mechanisms. We thus investigated whether it involves the MET oncogene, which regulates the invasive growth program by encoding the tyrosine kinase receptor for Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF). Here we show that the TNF-α pro-invasive activity requires MET function, as it is fully inhibited by MET-specific inhibitors (small-molecules, antibodies, and siRNAs). Mechanistically, we show that TNF-α induces MET transcription via NF-κB, and exploits MET to sustain MEK/ERK activation and Snail accumulation, leading to E-cadherin downregulation. We then show that TNF-α not only induces MET expression in cancer cells, but also HGF secretion by fibroblasts. Consistently, we found that, in human colorectal cancer tissues, high levels of TNF-α correlates with increased expression of both MET and HGF. These findings suggest that TNF-α fosters a HGF/MET pro-invasive paracrine loop in tumors. Targeting this ligand/receptor pair would contribute to prevent cancer progression associated with inflammation.Molecular Oncology 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.molonc.2014.09.002 · 5.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Here we show that the fate of osteolytic bone metastasis depends on the balance among autophagy, anoikis resistance and ossification, and that the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signaling pathway seems to have an important role in orchestrating bone colonization. These findings are consistent with the pathophysiology of bone metastasis that is influenced by the cross-talk of supportive and neoplastic cells through molecular signaling networks. We adopted the strategy to target metastasis and stroma with the use of adenovirally expressed NK4 (AdNK4) and Dasatinib to block HGF/Met axis and Src activity. In human bone metastatic 1833 cells, HGF conferred anoikis resistance via Akt and Src activities and HIF-1α induction, leading to Bim isoforms degradation. When Src and Met activities were inhibited with Dasatinib, the Bim isoforms accumulated conferring anoikis sensitivity. The proviability effect of HGF, under low-nutrient stress condition, was related to a faster autophagy deactivation with respect to HGF plus Dasatinib. In the 1833 xenograft model, AdNK4 switched metastasis vasculature to blood lacunae, increasing HIF-1α in metastasis. The combination of AdNK4 plus Dasatinib gave the most relevant results for mice survival, and the following molecular and cellular changes were found to be responsible. In bone metastasis, we observed a hypoxic condition - marked by HIF-1α - and an autophagy failure - marked by p62 without Beclin-1. Then, osteolytic bone metastases were largely prevented, because of autophagy failure in metastasis and ossification in bone marrow, with osteocalcin deposition. The abnormal repair process was triggered by the dysfunctional autophagy/anoikis interplay. In conclusion, the concomitant blockade of HGF/Met axis and Src activity seemed to induce HIF-1α in metastasis, whereas the bone marrow hypoxic response was reduced. As a consequence, anoikis resistance might be hampered favoring, instead, autophagy failure and neoformation of woven bone trabeculae. Mice survival was, therefore, prolonged by overcoming an escape strategy adopted by metastatic cells by disruption of tumor-stroma coevolution, showing the importance of autophagy inhibition for the therapy of bone metastasis.Cell Death & Disease 01/2014; 5(1):e1005. DOI:10.1038/cddis.2013.465 · 5.18 Impact Factor