Article

Nephrotic state as a risk factor for developing posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in paediatric patients with nephrotic syndrome.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children's Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.37). 03/2008; 23(8):2531-6. DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfn013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a distinctive and potentially serious complication of the nephrotic syndrome. The objective of the present study is to characterize the factors predisposing the development of PRES in paediatric patients with nephrotic syndrome.
We investigated paediatric patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome who developed PRES between 1999 and 2005 in our institution. Patients with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome and those with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome that were proven to be idiopathic were eligible.
In total, seven patients ranging in age from 1.5 to 15.1 years old were analysed. At the onset of PRES, six of the seven patients were in a nephrotic state. Various degrees of acute renal insufficiency were shown in four patients. The re-administration of cyclosporine after the episodes of PRES was carried out in four patients. During the observation for 17-51 months after the re-administration, the recurrence of PRES did not develop in these patients.
The development of PRES occurred at the time of moderate to severe nephrotic state in most of our paediatric patients with nephrotic syndrome. Besides the administration of cyclosporine and having hypertension, there appear to be several additive factors predisposing the development of PRES in these patients, namely low serum albumin level, generalized oedema, increase in vascular permeability, unstable fluid status and renal insufficiency. The re-administration of cyclosporine to those patients with anamnesis of PRES may be considered after the management and close monitoring of these factors as well as hypertension.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
159 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by variable associations of seizure activity, consciousness impairment, headaches, visual abnormalities, nausea/vomiting, and focal neurological signs. The PRES may occur in diverse situations. The findings on neuroimaging in PRES are often symmetric and predominate edema in the white matter of the brain areas perfused by the posterior brain circulation, which is reversible when the underlying cause is treated. We report the case of PRES in normotensive patient with hyponatremia.
    Journal of epilepsy research. 06/2014; 4(1):31-3.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: REVERSIBLE posterior leukoencephalopathy syn- drome (RPLS) is a rare neurological syndrome charac- terized by headache, altered mental status, seizures, and visual disturbance, associated with reversible white matter changes.1 It has been commonly reported in patients with severe hypertension and pre-eclampsia. Here we report a case with nephrotic syndrome complicated by RPLS.
    Chinese Medical Sciences Journal 03/2014; 29(1):55-7.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is a clinical syndrome based on changes in clinical imaging, and it has been reported to mainly occur in adults. However, it has been recently discovered that RPLS is also prevalent in infant patients, particularly in those using glucocorticoids, immunosuppressant medications and cytotoxic drugs. The current study presents a 5-year-old male with a previous diagnosis of systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA) and macrophage-activation syndrome who developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome during treatment with glucocorticoids, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biological agent (etanercept) therapy. After ~5 days of treatment, the patient made a complete clinical recovery; the magnetic resonance imaging reviewed 2 weeks later showed that the previous hyper-intensity signal had disappeared and the multiple lesions in the brain had been completely absorbed. The case report shows that, conforming to recent literature, SoJIA in infants should be considered a risk factor for developing RPLS. The clinical manifestations of the disease are multiple, but usually reversible, and the patients mostly have a good prognosis. Rapid diagnosis and treatment is essential as early treatment may prevent progression to irreversible brain damage. By increasing the awareness of RPLS, the patient care may improve and further insight may be gained.
    Biomedical reports. 01/2015; 3(1):55-58.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
15 Downloads
Available from
May 19, 2014