Dietary choline and betaine intakes in relation to concentrations of inflammatory markers in healthy adults: The ATTICA study

Department of Nutrition Science-Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 02/2008; 87(2):424-30.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Choline and betaine are found in a variety of plant and animal foods and were recently shown to be associated with decreased homocysteine concentrations.
The scope of this work was to investigate the associations between dietary choline and betaine consumption and various markers of low-grade systemic inflammation.
Under the context of a cross-sectional survey that enrolled 1514 men (18-87 y of age) and 1528 women (18-89 y of age) with no history of cardiovascular disease (the ATTICA Study), fasting blood samples were collected and inflammatory markers were measured. Dietary habits were evaluated with a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and the intakes of choline and betaine were calculated from food-composition tables.
Compared with the lowest tertile of choline intake (<250 mg/d), participants who consumed >310 mg/d had, on average, 22% lower concentrations of C-reactive protein (P < 0.05), 26% lower concentrations of interleukin-6 (P < 0.05), and 6% lower concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P < 0.01). Similarly, participants who consumed >360 mg/d of betaine had, on average, 10% lower concentrations of homocysteine (P < 0.01), 19% lower concentrations of C-reactive protein (P < 0.1), and 12% lower concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P < 0.05) than did those who consumed <260 mg/d. These findings were independent of various sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical characteristics of the participants.
Our results support an association between choline and betaine intakes and the inflammation process in free-eating and apparently healthy adults. However, further studies are needed to confirm or refute our findings.

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Available from: Smaragdi Antonopoulou, Sep 27, 2015
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    • "The relative importance of these sources varies with dietary patterns. Both choline and betaine are essential for human well-being (Detopoulou et al. 2008). While dietary choline could, in principle, supply all the requirements for both choline and betaine, the converse is not true, and dietary betaine is important for its choline-sparing effect (Dilger et al. 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of dietary betaine is increasingly recognized. The aim of this study was to develop a simple high-performance liquid chromatography with standard ultraviolet spectrometric detection (HPLC-UV) method for betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) determination in foods after derivatization. Two methods were used for betaine derivatization. Thereafter, derivatized betaine was quantified using HPLC-UV, and the results were compared with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The established derivatizing agent 2′-naphthacyl triflate and a novel derivatizing agent 2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone produced the same cationic derivative when they react with betaine. The calibration curves were linear up to 1000 μmol/L (R 2 = 0.9974 for 2′-naphthacyl triflate and 0.9995 for 2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone). The limit of detection was 1 μmol/L for both methods (2′-naphthacyl triflate and 2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone), confirming sufficient sensitivity for betaine quantification in foods. The average recovery from different food matrices (wheat flour and spinach) (n = 12) was 99 ± 9 %, 95 ± 10 %, and 101 ± 8 % for LC-MS, 2′-naphthacyl triflate, and 2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone, respectively. Inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) in the control samples (whole wheat flour) were below 10 %. Quantitative results for foods analyzed using 2′-naphthacyl triflate and 2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone were comparable to LC-MS (R 2 = 0.992 and 0.990), respectively. The highest betaine content (~160 mg/100 g) was found in spinach followed by faba bean, wheat flour, and beetroot. These methods can be widely used for betaine quantification because of the simplicity of the derivatization procedures, and the commercial availability of the derivatizing reagent (2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone) or through the relatively easy synthesis of 2-naphthacyl triflate.
    Food Analytical Methods 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12161-015-0195-6 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    • "In the current study, the nephroprotective effect of betaine can be attributed to its ability to inhibit NF-␬B signaling pathway activation which promotes overproduction of TNF-␣ and nitric oxide. The anti-inflammatory effect of betaine has been demonstrated in other studies (Detopoulou et al., 2008). Several antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents were proved effective in protecting the kidney against the deleterious effects of cisplatin (Kang et al., 2009; Khan et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic antitumor drugs used in the treatment of a wide range of solid tumors. Its primary dose-limiting side effect is nephrotoxicity. This study aims to investigate the effect of betaine supplementation on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. A single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (5mg/kg) deteriorated the kidney functions as reflected by elevated blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Oxidative/nitrosative stress was evident in cisplatin group by increased renal thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), an indicator of lipid peroxidation, reduced renal total antioxidant status and increased renal nitrite concentration. Cisplatin resulted in a decline in the concentrations of reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase in renal tissues. Renal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was also elevated. Expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and caspase-3 were up-regulated in renal tissues as indicated by immunohistochemical analysis. Histopathological changes were observed in cisplatin group. Betaine supplementation (250mg/kg/day) orally via gavage for 21 days prior to cisplatin injection was able to protect against deterioration in kidney function, abrogate the decline in antioxidants enzymes and suppressed the increase in TBARS, nitrite and TNF-α concentrations. Moreover, betaine inhibited NF-κB and caspase-3 activation and improved the histological changes induced by cisplatin. Thus, the present study demonstrated the renoprotective nature of betaine by attenuating the pro-inflammatory and apoptotic mediators and improving antioxidant competence in kidney tissues of cisplatin treated rats. Betaine could be a beneficial dietary supplement to attenuate cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
    Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie 12/2014; 67(2). DOI:10.1016/j.etp.2014.11.001 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    • "The choline content of the control diet is considered to provide adequate choline intake during pregnancy (Meck et al., 2007). The choline-supplemented diet provided approximately 4.5 times the concentration of choline in the normal diet, within the range of dietary variation observed in the human population (Detopoulou et al., 2008). The breeder pairs were provided ad libitum access to their assigned diet. "
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    ABSTRACT: Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) lessens hippocampal dysfunction and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1 (g)/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0 (g)/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial learning and memory followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing powerful support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for the trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large.
    Neurobiology of Disease 06/2014; 70. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2014.06.001 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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