Article

Randomized controlled trial of the effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid function in the elderly in the United Kingdom.

Nutritional Sciences Division, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.5). 02/2008; 87(2):370-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Thyroid function depends on the essential trace mineral selenium, which is at the active center of the iodothyronine deiodinase enzymes that catalyze the conversion of the prohormone thyroxine (T(4)) to the active form of thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T(3)).
Because selenium intake in the United Kingdom has fallen during the past 25 y, we wanted to determine whether current selenium status might be limiting conversion of T(4) to T(3) in the elderly, in whom marginal hypothyroidism is relatively common.
We investigated the effect of selenium supplementation in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 501 elderly UK volunteers. Similar numbers of men and women from each of 3 age groups, 60-64 y, 65-69 y, and 70-74 y, were randomly allocated to receive 100, 200, or 300 microg Se/d as high-selenium yeast or placebo yeast for 6 mo. As part of the study, plasma selenium, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and total and free T(3) and T(4) were measured. Data from 368 euthyroid volunteers who provided blood samples at baseline and 6 mo were analyzed.
Although selenium status at baseline correlated weakly with free T(4) (r = -0.19, P < 0.001) and with the ratio of free T(3) to free T(4) (r = 0.12, P = 0.02), we found no evidence of any effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid function, despite significant increases in plasma selenium. However, baseline plasma selenium in our study (x: 91 microg/L) was somewhat higher than in previous supplementation studies in which apparently beneficial effects were seen.
We found no indication for increasing selenium intake to benefit T(4) to T(3) conversion in the elderly UK population.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
78 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To provide information on the role of the essential trace element selenium, which enables appropriate thyroid hormone synthesis, secretion, and metabolism, and to discuss supplementation with various selenium compounds, which prevent thyroid diseases such as goiter and exert beneficial effects in thyroid autoimmune diseases. Selenium administration in both autoimmune thyroiditis (M. Hashimoto) and mild Graves' disease improves clinical scores and well-being of patients and reduces autoimmune antibody titres in several prospective, placebo-controlled supplementation studies. Adequate nutritional supply of selenium, together with the two other essential trace elements iodine and iron, is required for a healthy thyroid during development and adolescence, as well as in the adult and aging populations.
    Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity 08/2013; · 3.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis have impaired health-related quality of life. The thyroid gland has a high selenium concentration, and specific selenoprotein enzyme families are crucial to immune function, and catalyze thyroid hormone metabolism and redox processes in thyroid cells. Previous randomized controlled trials have found that selenium supplementation decreases thyroid-disease-specific antibody levels. We hypothesize that selenium might be beneficial in the treatment of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.Methods/design: The CATALYST trial is an investigator-initiated randomized, blinded, multicentre clinical trial of selenium supplementation versus placebo in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Inclusion criteria: age >=18 years; serum thyroid peroxidase antibody level >=100 IU/ml within the previous 12 months; treatment with levothyroxine and written informed consent. Exclusion criteria: previous diagnosis of toxic nodular goitre, Graves' hyperthyroidism, postpartum thyroiditis, Graves' orbitopathy; previous antithyroid drug treatment, radioiodine therapy or thyroid surgery; immune-modulatory or other medication affecting thyroid function; pregnancy, planned pregnancy or breastfeeding; allergy towards any intervention or placebo component; intake of selenium supplementation >55 mug/day; inability to read or understand Danish or lack of informed consent. The trial will include 2 x 236 participants. The experimental intervention and control groups will receive 200 mug selenium-enriched yeast or matching placebo tablets daily for 12 months. The experimental supplement will be SelenoPrecise(R). The primary outcome is thyroid-related quality of life assessed by the Thyroid Patient-Reported Outcome (ThyPRO) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include serum thyroid peroxidase antibody concentration; serum triiodothyronine/thyroxine ratio; levothyroxine dosage; adverse reactions and serious adverse effects and events. In this pragmatic trial, participating patients follow their usual treatment at their usual hospitals. In order to collect high-quality data on the clinical course and quality of life, and to minimize missing data, an elaborate trial management system has been designed. 12 months intervention duration was selected in consideration of the primary outcome, thyroid-related quality of life.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02013479.
    Trials 04/2014; 15(1):115. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The therapeutic effect of selenium (Se) has already been proven in thyroid disease and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In spite of clear scientific proof of its benefits in TAO, there appears to be no clear agreement among the clinicians regarding its optimum dose, duration of the treatment, efficacy and safety to date. In this review, the author summarises the findings of 135 English language articles published on this subject over the past four decades from 1973 to 2013. The regulation and metabolism of thyroid hormones require a steady supply of Se and recent studies have revealed several possible mechanisms by which Se improves the severity of thyroid disease and TAO. These mechanisms include 1) inhibitory effect of HLA-DR molecule expression on thyrocytes; 2) profound reductions of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab) and TPO antibodies (TPO-Ab); 3) prevention of dysregulation of cell-mediated immunity and B cell function; 4) neutralising reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of redox control processes required for the activation, differentiation and action of lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells involved in both acute and chronic orbital inflammation in TAO; 5) inhibition of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and 6) inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. An increased oxidative stress has been observed in both acute and chronic phases of thyroid disease with raised tissue concentrations of ROS. The benefits of Se supplementation in individuals with TAO appear to be proportionate to the degree of systemic activity of the thyroid disease. The maximal benefit of Se supplementation is therefore seen in the subjects who are hyperthyroid. Restoration of euthyroidism is one of the main goals in the management of TAO and when anti-thyroid drugs are combined with Se, the patients with Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) achieved euthyroidism faster than those treated with anti-thyroid drugs alone. Se status of normal adult humans can vary widely and Se supplementation may confer benefit only if serum Se levels are insufficient. The author recommends that serum Se levels of patients with TAO to be assessed prior to and during Se supplementation at regular intervals to avoid potential iatrogenic chronic Se overdose.
    International Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2014; 7(2):365-375. · 0.12 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
30 Downloads
Available from
May 20, 2014