Single particle characterization of iron-induced pore-forming alpha-synuclein oligomers
ABSTRACT Aggregation of alpha-synuclein is a key event in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson disease. Recent findings suggest that oligomers represent the principal toxic aggregate species. Using confocal single-molecule fluorescence techniques, such as scanning for intensely fluorescent targets (SIFT) and atomic force microscopy, we monitored alpha-synuclein oligomer formation at the single particle level. Organic solvents were used to trigger aggregation, which resulted in small oligomers ("intermediate I"). Under these conditions, Fe(3+) at low micromolar concentrations dramatically increased aggregation and induced formation of larger oligomers ("intermediate II"). Both oligomer species were on-pathway to amyloid fibrils and could seed amyloid formation. Notably, only Fe(3+)-induced oligomers were SDS-resistant and could form ion-permeable pores in a planar lipid bilayer, which were inhibited by the oligomer-specific A11 antibody. Moreover, baicalein and N'-benzylidene-benzohydrazide derivatives inhibited oligomer formation. Baicalein also inhibited alpha-synuclein-dependent toxicity in neuronal cells. Our results may provide a potential disease mechanism regarding the role of ferric iron and of toxic oligomer species in Parkinson diseases. Moreover, scanning for intensely fluorescent targets allows high throughput screening for aggregation inhibitors and may provide new approaches for drug development and therapy.
SourceAvailable from: Johannes LevinActa Neuropathologica 03/2014; 127(5). DOI:10.1007/s00401-014-1265-3 · 9.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In several neurodegenerative diseases, hyperphosphorylation at position Ser129 is found in fibrillar deposits of alpha-synuclein (asyn), implying a pathophysiological role of asyn phosphorylation in neurodegeneration. However, recent animal models applying asyn phosphorylation mimics demonstrated a protective effect of phosphorylation. Since metal-ion induced asyn oligomers were identified as a potential neurotoxic aggregate species with membrane pore-forming abilities, the current study was undertaken to determine effects of asyn phosphorylation on oligomer membrane binding.PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e98906. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098906 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Certain membrane-associated arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) with lysine-rich sub-domains participate in plant growth, development and resistance to stress. To complement fluorescence imaging of such molecules when tagged and introduced transgenically to the cell periphery and to extend the groundwork for assessing molecular structure, some behaviours of surface-spread AGPs were visualized at the nanometre scale in a simplified electrostatic environment. Methods Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labelled LeAGP1 was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves using antibody-coated magnetic beads, deposited on graphite or mica, and examined with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Key Results When deposited at low concentration on graphite, LeAGP can form independent clusters and rings a few nanometres in diameter, often defining deep pits; the aperture of the rings depends on plating parameters. On mica, intermediate and high concentrations, respectively, yielded lacy meshes and solid sheets that could dynamically evolve arcs, rings, 'pores' and 'co-pores', and pits. Glucosyl Yariv reagent combined with the AGP to make very large and distinctive rings. Conclusions Diverse cell-specific nano-patterns of native lysine-rich AGPs are expected at the wall-membrane interface and, while there will not be an identical patterning in different environmental settings, AFM imaging suggests protein tendencies for surficial organization and thus opens new avenues for experimentation. Nanopore formation with Yariv reagents suggests how the reagent might bind with AGP to admit Ca2+ to cells and hints at ways in which AGP might be structured at some cell surfaces.Annals of Botany 08/2014; 114(6). DOI:10.1093/aob/mcu172 · 3.30 Impact Factor