Article

# Nanotechnology and water treatment: applications and emerging opportunities.

Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
(Impact Factor: 6.09). 02/2008; 34(1):43-69. DOI: 10.1080/10408410701710442
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nanotechnology, the engineering and art of manipulating matter at the nanoscale (1-100 nm), offers the potential of novel nanomaterials for treatment of surface water, groundwater, and wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, organic and inorganic solutes, and microorganisms. Due to their unique activity toward recalcitrant contaminants and application flexibility, many nanomaterials are under active research and development. Accordingly, literature about current research on different nanomaterials (nanostructured catalytic membranes, nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, and bioactive nanoparticles) and their application in water treatment, purification and disinfection is reviewed in this article. Moreover, knowledge regarding toxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials on humans and the environment is presented.

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ABSTRACT: There is a growing interest in the study of plasma-liquid interactions with application to biomedicine, chemical disinfection, agriculture, and other fields. This work models the momentum, heat, and neutral species mass transfer between gas and aqueous phases in the context of a streamer discharge; the qualitative conclusions are generally applicable to plasma-liquid systems. The problem domain is discretized using the finite element method. The most interesting and relevant model result for application purposes is the steep gradients in reactive species at the interface. At the center of where the reactive gas stream impinges on the water surface, the aqueous concentrations of OH and ONOOH decrease by roughly 9 and 4 orders of magnitude respectively within 50 $\mu$m of the interface. Recognizing the limited penetration of reactive plasma species into the aqueous phase is critical to discussions about the therapeutic mechanisms for direct plasma treatment of biological solutions. Other interesting results from this study include the presence of a 10 K temperature drop in the gas boundary layer adjacent to the interface that arises from convective cooling and water evaporation. Accounting for the resulting difference between gas and liquid bulk temperatures has a significant impact on reaction kinetics; factor of two changes in terminal aqueous species concentrations like H$_2$O$_2$, NO$_2^-$, and NO$_3^-$ are observed if the effect of evaporative cooling is not included.
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Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 02/2015; 115C:234-242. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.02.028 · 2.48 Impact Factor

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