Nanotechnology and water treatment: applications and emerging opportunities.

Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
Critical Reviews in Microbiology (Impact Factor: 6.09). 02/2008; 34(1):43-69. DOI: 10.1080/10408410701710442
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nanotechnology, the engineering and art of manipulating matter at the nanoscale (1-100 nm), offers the potential of novel nanomaterials for treatment of surface water, groundwater, and wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, organic and inorganic solutes, and microorganisms. Due to their unique activity toward recalcitrant contaminants and application flexibility, many nanomaterials are under active research and development. Accordingly, literature about current research on different nanomaterials (nanostructured catalytic membranes, nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, and bioactive nanoparticles) and their application in water treatment, purification and disinfection is reviewed in this article. Moreover, knowledge regarding toxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials on humans and the environment is presented.

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    ABSTRACT: Water treatment is the processing of water to meet or achieve specified goals or standards set by regulatory agencies and end users. New water treatment technologies are being developed that need to be evaluated on a fundamental scientific and practical basis compared to traditional remediation processes. Recent advances in nanomaterial development for water treatment in the areas of filtration membranes, high surface area adsorbents, and efficient photocatalysts require approval for their effectiveness and safeness. Fundamental theories and concepts discussed in this chapter pertain to the areas of (i) adsorption and equilibrium isotherms (ii) pressure-driven membrane filtration and its rejection mechanisms for filtration and reverse osmosis processes; and (iii) advanced oxidation processes with a focus on semiconductor photocatalytic concepts.
    Nanotechnology for Water Treatment and Purification, Edited by Anming Hu, Allen Apblett, 01/2014: chapter 1: pages 1-45; Springer International Publishing., ISBN: 9783319065779
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    ABSTRACT: Elucidation of the interaction between TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and natural organic matter (NOM) can help to better understand the fates, features and environmental impacts of NPs. In this work, two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) correlation spectroscopy (CoS) assisted by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) method is used to explore the interaction mechanism of humic acid (HA) with TiO2 NPs at a molecular level. The results show that the C=O bonds (carboxylate, amide, quinone or ketone) and C-O bonds (phenol, aliphatic C-OH and polysaccharide) of HA play important roles in their interaction with TiO2 NPs. The adsorption process of HA onto the surface of TiO2 NPs is different from the bonding process of the two species in solution. The forms of the relevant groups of HA and their consequent reaction with TiO2 NPs are affected to a great extent by the solution pH and the surface charge of NPs. The 2D-FTIR-CoS method is found to be able to construct a comprehensive picture about the DOM-TiO2 NPs interaction process. This 2D-FTIR-CoS approach might also be used to probe other complicated interaction processes in natural and engineered environments.
    Environmental science & technology. 09/2014; 48(19):11119–11126.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by green methods latex of Calotropis procera at 80 °C and evaluate them against bacteria, derma utospinhygt esse raunmd phytopathogenic fungi comparing with the activity of untreated latex. Methods: The synthesis of AgNPs was performed by mixing 3% latex serum extract with the same volume of silver nitrate (2 mmol/L) solution in round flask and heating in water bath at 8tr0a n°Cs.m Cishsairoanc teelreizcattrioonn mofi csriolvsecro ppya rticles were determined using UV-vis spectrophotometer, spectroscopy. (TEM), X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared bacteria, dermTahtoep hanytteims iacnrdob pihaly taocptaivthitoyg oefn itch ef ugnrgeie nan sdy nctohmepsiazreedd Atog NthPes cwruads ed uetnetrrmeaitneedd laatgeaxi nbsyt agar-well diffusion methods. Results: Biosynthesis of latex silver nanoparticles was successfully obtained by green method. aTnhde formation of AgNPs has been confirmed by UV-vis, TEM microscopy, X-ray diffraction highlFyo ustraiberle t rsapnhsefroircmal isnhfarapreedd psapreticctlreoss,c wopeyll. dTiEsMpe rasneadl ywsiisth s ah odwiaemd ettheart rsaynngtehde sfrizoemd AgNPs are 4 nm up to 2n5e gnamti vaen db aacnt earviear age size of 12.33 nm. AgNPs showed strong antibacterial activity against Gram- activity against Tric(Ehsocphheyrtiocnh irau bcroulmi, ,P Csaeunddiodmao anlabsic aaenrsu agnidn oAssap earngdil lSuesr treartrieau ss.p.) and antifungal Conclusions: It can be concluded that serum latex of Calotropis procera was found to display sstirlvoenrg iponotse n(Atiga+l tfoo rA tgh0)e. Tsyhnet hgereseisn osfy nAtghNePsisz eads AangtNimPsic wroebriea lf oaugnedn ttso tshhroowug hhi grahpeird a rnetdimucictiroonb iaolf
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 01/2014; Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014; 4(11): 864-871 Asian.


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May 30, 2014