Animals as sentinels of chemical terrorism agents: an evidence-based review.
ABSTRACT The goal of this systematic review was to identify evidence that animals could serve as sentinels of an attack with a chemical terrorism agent.
The biomedical literature was systematically searched for evidence that wild or domestic animals exposed to certain chemical weapons of terrorism had either greater susceptibility, shorter latency period, or increased exposure risk versus humans. Additionally, we searched for documented reports of such animals historically serving as sentinels for chemical warfare agents.
For a small number of agents, there was limited evidence that domestic and/or wild animals could provide sentinel information to humans following an airborne attack with chemical agents, usually related to increased potential for environmental exposure. Some of this evidence was based on anecdotal case reports, and in many cases high quality chemical terrorism agent evidence regarding comparative susceptibility, exposure, and latency between humans and sentinel animal species was not found.
Currently, there is insufficient evidence for routine use of animals as sentinels for airborne chemical warfare agents. At the same time, Poison Center surveillance systems should include animal calls, and greater communication between veterinarians and physicians could help with preparedness for a chemical terrorism attack. Further analysis of comparative chemical warfare agent toxicity between sentinel animal species and humans is needed.
- SourceAvailable from: Peggy L Schmidt[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Animal sentinel surveillance is a key component of public health risk assessment. While many species serve as animal sentinels, companion animals have an especially valuable role as sentinels because of their unique place in people's lives, with exposure to similar household and recreational risk factors as those for the people who own them. Dogs and cats can help in early identification of food contamination, infectious disease transmission, environmental contamination, and even bioterrorism or chemical terrorism events. Early detection, leading to early intervention, can minimize the impact of these adverse events on both animal and human health.Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 04/2009; 39(2):241-50. · 1.43 Impact Factor
Conference Proceeding: An accuracy assessment of the interactive calibration of ASTER/TIR with MODIS[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A basic concept for an interactive calibration between EOS-AM1/ASTER and MODIS is proposed together with the method for assessment of interactive calibration accuracy. The results from preliminary assessment on atmospheric transparency differences between two wavelength regions of ASTER/TIR and MODIS by using LOWTRAN-7 show the possibility of the proposed interactive calibration. The differences between atmospheric transparency for ASTER/TIR band 11 and MODIS band 29 and ASTER/TIR band 14 and MODIS band 31, respectively, were assessed with LOWTRAN-7 under the assumption of 1976 US standard and subarctic winter atmosphere and the ground cover of 0% albedo. The transparency of the atmosphere in these wavelength regions are not so different that it is possible to calibrate each other if a homogeneous target is used and the pixels of both sensor are collocated. Furthermore it was found that the spectral emissivity difference of the ground cover targets between both sensors' wavelength regions is not so large contributions to the interactive calibration accuracyGeoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1993. IGARSS '93. Better Understanding of Earth Environment., International; 09/1993
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ABSTRACT: The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal miners brought caged canaries into mines to provide early warning of toxic gases. Yet the full potential of linking animal and human health information to provide warning of such ‘shared risks’ from environmental hazards has not been realised. Reasons appear to include the professional segregation of human and animal health communities, the separation of human and animal surveillance data and evidence gaps in the linkages between human and animal responses to environmental health hazards. The ‘One Health initiative’ and growing international collaboration in response to pandemic threats, coupled with development in the fields of informatics and genomics, hold promise for improved sentinel event coordination in order to detect and reduce environmental health threats shared between species.Veterinaria Italiana. 01/2009;