Clinical significance of BMP7 in human colorectal cancer
ABSTRACT Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted signaling molecules belonging to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily. Recent studies demonstrated that the expression patterns of BMPs are altered in several tumors. The purpose of the current study was to examine the expression of BMP7 in malignant and normal colorectal tissues, and to analyze whether BMP7 expression levels correlate with clinicopathological variables and prognosis in colorectal cancer.
Paired colorectal tissue samples from cancer and corresponding nonmalignant tissues were obtained from 65 patients who underwent surgical resection for colorectal cancer. The expression status of BMP7 mRNA was investigated by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and protein expression was analyzed by an immunohistochemical study.
Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that BMP7 mRNA expression in cancerous tissue was significantly higher than that in normal tissue (p < 0.0001). An immunohistochemical study revealed that BMP7 was predominantly expressed in cancer cells. Elevated BMP7 expression was significantly correlated with depth of tumor invasion, liver metastasis, liver recurrence, advanced Dukes' classification, and cancer-related death (p < 0.05, 0.001, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.01, respectively). Furthermore, patients with the highest levels of BMP7 expression showed the poorest prognosis (p < 0.01). A multivariate analysis showed that BMP7 expression status was an independent prognostic factor of overall survival (relative risk, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-5.30; p < 0.05).
Expression of BMP7 in colorectal tumors correlates with parameters of pathological aggressiveness such as liver metastasis and poor prognosis. Thus, BMP7 could be a useful clinical marker for colorectal cancer patients.
SourceAvailable from: George Karagiannis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are phylogenetically conserved signaling molecules of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of proteins, involved in developmental and (patho)physiological processes, including cancer. BMP signaling has been regarded as tumor-suppressive in colorectal cancer (CRC) by reducing cancer cell proliferation and invasion, and by impairing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we mined existing proteomic repositories to explore the expression of BMPs in CRC. We found that the BMP antagonist gremlin-1 (GREM1) is secreted from heterotypic tumor-host cell interactions. We then sought to investigate whether GREM1 is contextually and mechanistically associated with EMT in CRC. Using immunohistochemistry, we showed that GREM1-expressing stromal cells harbor prominent features of myofibroblasts (i.e. cancer-associated fibroblasts), such as expression of α-smooth muscle actin and laminin-beta-1, and were in contextual proximity to invasion fronts with loss of the tight-junction protein occludin and parallel nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, two prominent EMT hallmarks. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that GREM1-dependent suppression of BMP signaling results in EMT induction, characterized by cadherin switching (loss of E-cadherin - upregulation of N-cadherin) and overexpression of Snail. Collectively, our data support that GREM1 promotes the loss of cancer cell differentiation at the cancer invasion front, a mechanism that may facilitate tumor progression.Biological Chemistry 08/2014; 396(2). DOI:10.1515/hsz-2014-0221 · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Preclinical data, and an increasing list of clinical investigations, show anti‑inflammatory agents to favourably influence the biology of colorectal tumor. We have earlier reported on re‑expression of activated immune cells after three days preoperative treatment of patients with colorectal carcinoma, randomized to receive oral NSAID (indomethacin or celebrex). Antisecretory prophylaxis (esomeprasol) was provided to all patients and served as sham treatment. Concomittant to MHC locus activation, Prominin1/CD133, a marker associated with stemness and poor prognosis in several solid tumors, was downregulated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate expression of additional regulators belonging to the stem cell niche, OCT4, SOX2 and BMP7, as well as some microRNAs, reported to act as tumor suppressors or oncomiRs. Peroperative tumor biopsies were analyzed by microarrays, quantitative real‑time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The stem cell master regulator SOX2 was increased by NSAIDs (p<0.01), as well as the tumor suppressor miR‑630 (p<0.01), while BMP7, a marker for poor prognosis in CRC, was downregulated by NSAID (indomethacin, p<0.02). The upregulation of SOX2, but not of its heterodimer binding partner OCT4, could imply a negative feed‑back loop, with a switch‑off for stemness preservation of tumor cells. This is supported by the overall evaluation of gene expression profiles with subsequent events, indicating less aggressive tumors following NSAID treatment.International Journal of Oncology 12/2014; 45(6):2208-20. DOI:10.3892/ijo.2014.2686 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-7 is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily, which is originally identified based on its ability to induce cartilage and bone formation. In recent years, BMP-7 is also defined as a potent promoter of cell motility, invasion, and metastasis. However, there is little knowledge of the role of BMP-7 and its cellular function in chondrosarcoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the biological impact of BMP-7 on cell motility using transwell assay. In addition, the intracellular signaling pathways were also investigated by pharmacological and genetic approaches. Our results demonstrated that treatment with exogenous BMP-7 markedly increased cell migration by activating c-Src/PI3K/Akt/IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in the transactivation of αvβ3 integrin expression. Indeed, abrogation of signaling activation, by chemical inhibition or expression of a kinase dead form of the protein attenuated BMP-7-induced expression of integrin αvβ3 and cell migration. These findings may provide a useful tool for diagnostic/prognostic purposes and even therapeutically in late-stage chondrosarcoma as an anti-metastatic agent.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112636. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112636 · 3.53 Impact Factor