Effects of gum arabic (Acacia senegal) on water and electrolyte balance in healthy mice

Department of Physiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
Journal of Renal Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.55). 04/2008; 18(2):230-8. DOI: 10.1053/j.jrn.2007.08.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Gum arabic (GA) is a dietary fiber derived from the dried exudates of Acacia senegal. It is widely used in both the pharmaceutical and food industries as an emulsifier and stabilizer. It is also used in the traditional treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease in Middle Eastern countries. However, the effects of GA on renal function remain ill-defined.
We explored the effects of GA on the water and electrolyte balance of healthy wild-type 129S1/SvImJ mice (n = 18). Feces and urine were collected in metabolic cages before and after 3 or 14 days of treatment with 10% GA in drinking water.
The GA solutions contained particularly high concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+. Because of enhanced uptake, treatment with GA significantly increased both the intestinal and renal excretion of Mg2+ and Ca(2+). The latter was accompanied by decreased urinary excretion of inorganic phosphate and decreased plasma concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. Moreover, GA significantly increased fecal weight and Na+ excretion. Gum arabic increased 24-h creatinine clearance (from 283 +/- 35 to 382 +/- 40 muL/min [SEM]) and urinary antidiuretic hormone excretion, and decreased daily urine output (from 1.8 +/- 0.2 to 1.2 +/- 0.1 mL/24 h) as well as the urinary excretion of Na(+) (from 226 +/- 22 to 196 +/- 19 mumol/24 h). In conclusion, treatment with GA resulted in moderate but significant increases of creatinine clearance and altered electrolyte excretion, i.e., effects favorable in renal insufficiency.


Available from: Omaima Nasir, Mar 09, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Gum arabic (GA), a water-soluble dietary fiber rich in Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+), is used in Middle Eastern countries for the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease. Recent animal experiments shed some light into mechanisms involved in the therapeutic action of GA. According to experiments in healthy mice, GA treatment increases creatinine clearance, enhances renal excretion of ADH, Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), decreases plasma phosphate concentration as well as urinary excretion of phosphate and Na(+). In diabetic mice GA treatment increases urinary Ca(2+) excretion, and decreases plasma phosphate concentration, plasma urea concentration, urinary flow rate, natriuresis, phosphaturia, glucosuria, proteinuria as well as blood pressure. Extrarenal effects of GA treatment in mice include decreased expression of intestinal Na(+) coupled glucose carrier SGLT1 with subsequent delay of electrogenic intestinal glucose transport, glucose-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and body weight gain. GA treatment decreases colonic transcription of the angiogenetic factors angiogenin 1, angiogenin 3 and angiogenin 4, of CD38 antigen, aquaporin4, interleukin18, vav-3-oncogene, y(+)-amino acid-transporter, sulfatase1, ubiquitinD and chemokine ligand5. Moreover, GA treatment decreases angiogenin and ß-catenin protein expression. Accordingly, GA treatment counteracts the development of tumors following chemical cancerogenesis. In mouse dendritic cells, antigen-presenting cells linking innate and adaptive immunity, GA treatment modifies maturation and cytokine release. GA treatment further favourably influences the course of murine malaria. The effects of GA treatment on plasma phosphate concentration, blood pressure and proteinuria may prove beneficial in chronic renal failure and diabetic nephropathy. The effect of GA on intestinal glucose transport may be useful in the prophylaxis and treatment of obesity and diabetes, the effect of GA on angiogenin and ß-catenin expression could be exploited for the prophylaxis against colon carcinoma, the effects of GA on angiogenin expression and dendritic cells may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory disease and malaria. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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    ABSTRACT: Gum arabic is the complex exudate of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal tree. This dried sap with immense commercial value is a global commodity, generally harvested in Africa and Western Asia. Non-digestibility, low solution viscosity and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status renders its popularity in food industries. For its desirable emulsifying, stabilizing, binding and shelf-life enhancing properties, it has found application in many foods. Current literature suggests its cardio-, reno-, gut- and dental protective, satiety-inducing, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant implications. Its foray into drug delivery, sensor, tumour imaging and nano-technology has met with appreciable success, fuelling further investigation on its hitherto unexplored functionality. The objective of this review was to highlight the recently-unravelled pharmacological potential of this gum with an aim to provide holistic information on its wide spectrum of utility and prospects.
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