Effects of gum arabic (Acacia senegal) on water and electrolyte balance in healthy mice.
ABSTRACT Gum arabic (GA) is a dietary fiber derived from the dried exudates of Acacia senegal. It is widely used in both the pharmaceutical and food industries as an emulsifier and stabilizer. It is also used in the traditional treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease in Middle Eastern countries. However, the effects of GA on renal function remain ill-defined.
We explored the effects of GA on the water and electrolyte balance of healthy wild-type 129S1/SvImJ mice (n = 18). Feces and urine were collected in metabolic cages before and after 3 or 14 days of treatment with 10% GA in drinking water.
The GA solutions contained particularly high concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+. Because of enhanced uptake, treatment with GA significantly increased both the intestinal and renal excretion of Mg2+ and Ca(2+). The latter was accompanied by decreased urinary excretion of inorganic phosphate and decreased plasma concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. Moreover, GA significantly increased fecal weight and Na+ excretion. Gum arabic increased 24-h creatinine clearance (from 283 +/- 35 to 382 +/- 40 muL/min [SEM]) and urinary antidiuretic hormone excretion, and decreased daily urine output (from 1.8 +/- 0.2 to 1.2 +/- 0.1 mL/24 h) as well as the urinary excretion of Na(+) (from 226 +/- 22 to 196 +/- 19 mumol/24 h). In conclusion, treatment with GA resulted in moderate but significant increases of creatinine clearance and altered electrolyte excretion, i.e., effects favorable in renal insufficiency.
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ABSTRACT: Effects of cladrin treatment and withdrawal in osteopenic rats were studied. Cladrin improved trabecular microarchitecture, increased lumbar vertebral compressive strength, augmented coupled remodeling, and increased bone osteogenic genes. A significant skeletal gain was maintained 4 weeks after cladrin withdrawal. Findings suggest that cladrin has significant positive skeletal effects. INTRODUCTION: We showed that a standardized extract of Butea monosperma preserved trabecular bone mass in ovariectomized (OVx) rats. Cladrin, the most abundant bioactive compound of the extract, promoted peak bone mass achievement in growing rats by stimulating osteoblast function. Here, we studied the effects of cladrin treatment and withdrawal on the osteopenic bones. METHODS: Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were OVx and left untreated for 12 weeks to allow for significant estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, at which point cladrin (1 and 10 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for another 12 weeks. Half of the rats were killed at the end of the treatments and the other half at 4 weeks after treatment withdrawal. Sham-operated rats and OVx rats treated with PTH or 17β-estradiol (E2) served as various controls. Efficacy was evaluated by bone microarchitecture using microcomputed tomographic analysis and fluorescent labeling of bone. qPCR and western blotting measured mRNA and protein levels in bone and uterus. Specific ELISA was used for measuring levels of serum PINP and urinary CTx. RESULTS: In osteopenic rats, cladrin treatment dose dependently improved trabecular microarchitecture, increased lumbar vertebral compression strength, bone formation rate (BFR), cortical thickness (Cs.Th), serum PINP levels, and expression of osteogenic genes in bones; and reduced expression of bone osteoclastogenic genes and urinary CTx levels. Cladrin had no uterine estrogenicity. Cladrin at 10 mg/kg maintained acquired skeletal gains 4 weeks after withdrawal. CONCLUSION: Cladrin had positive skeletal effects in osteopenic rats that were maintained after treatment withdrawal.Osteoporosis International 08/2012; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the cardiovascular and renal effects of dietary fibre supplementation with Acacia(sen) SUPERGUM™ (gum arabic) in normal individuals and a group of diabetic nephropaths. The normal diet was supplemented with 25 g of SUPERGUM™ daily for a period of 8–12 weeks.For the whole cohort dietary supplementation with SUPERGUM™ resulted in a fall in mean systolic blood pressure [SBP] (138.4 ± 18.9 mmHg to 132.83 ± 15.9 mmHg p = 0.01). Of note was a significant fall in SBP seen in normal individuals who neither had hypertension nor diabetes (129.1 ± 8.3 mmHg vs 123.6 ± 11.5 mmHg, n = 10 p = 0.02).Parameters of arterial stiffness were examined in patients with diabetic nephropathy and a fall in MAP. In this subgroup there was a significant fall in both central systolic and diastolic blood pressures, with no alterations in AI, AI @75 or PWV. This suggests that the beneficial effects of SUPERGUM™ on blood pressure are not the result of alterations in arterial stiffness.There were no effects of SUPERGUM™ on renal function and haemodynamics in patients with diabetic nephropathy. In contrast a reversible change in GFR (113.0 ml min vs 99.4 ml/min, p = 0.02) and ERPF (489.7 ml/min vs 463.0 ml/min, p = 0.04) was shown in the population of healthy volunteers.The key finding of this study is the a significant beneficial effect of dietary supplementation with SUPERGUM™ on blood pressure which is seen in both a patient group with diabetes and mild renal involvement as well as in a normal healthy normotensive cohort.Food Hydrocolloids 01/2009; 23(8):2410-2415. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gum Arabic (GA), a nutrient from dried exudate of Acacia senegal, is widely used as emulsifier and stabilizer. It stimulates sodium and water absorption in diarrhea. This study explored the effects of GA in colonic tissue. Mice were treated with GA (10% wt/vol) in drinking water and gene array was performed. As GA modified several tumor-relevant genes, chemical cancerogenesis (intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg 1,2-dimethylhydrazine followed by 3 cycles of 3% dextrane sodium sulphate in drinking water) was induced with or without GA treatment. Within 4 days, GA treatment decreased the colonic transcript levels of the angiogenetic factors angiogenin 1, angiogenin 3, and angiogenin 4 by 78 +/- 18%, 88 +/- 15%, and 92 +/- 13%, respectively (n = 5 each), and of further genes including CD38 antigen, aquaporin4, interleukin18, vav-3-oncogene, gamma(+)-amino acid transporter, sulfatase1, ubiquitinD, and chemokine ligand5. According to Western blotting, GA treatment similarly decreased angiogenin protein expression, and according to immunohistochemistry, it decreased ss-catenin expression. Chemical cancerogenesis resulted in multiple colonic tumors within 12 wk. GA treatment (10% wt/wt) in drinking water significantly decreased the number of tumors by 70%. The observations disclose a powerful anticarcinogenic effect of GA. The nutrient could thus be used for the prophylaxis against colon carcinoma particularly in individuals at enhanced risk.Nutrition and Cancer 01/2010; 62(6):802-10. · 2.70 Impact Factor