Effects of gum arabic (Acacia senegal) on water and electrolyte balance in healthy mice.
ABSTRACT Gum arabic (GA) is a dietary fiber derived from the dried exudates of Acacia senegal. It is widely used in both the pharmaceutical and food industries as an emulsifier and stabilizer. It is also used in the traditional treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease in Middle Eastern countries. However, the effects of GA on renal function remain ill-defined.
We explored the effects of GA on the water and electrolyte balance of healthy wild-type 129S1/SvImJ mice (n = 18). Feces and urine were collected in metabolic cages before and after 3 or 14 days of treatment with 10% GA in drinking water.
The GA solutions contained particularly high concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+. Because of enhanced uptake, treatment with GA significantly increased both the intestinal and renal excretion of Mg2+ and Ca(2+). The latter was accompanied by decreased urinary excretion of inorganic phosphate and decreased plasma concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. Moreover, GA significantly increased fecal weight and Na+ excretion. Gum arabic increased 24-h creatinine clearance (from 283 +/- 35 to 382 +/- 40 muL/min [SEM]) and urinary antidiuretic hormone excretion, and decreased daily urine output (from 1.8 +/- 0.2 to 1.2 +/- 0.1 mL/24 h) as well as the urinary excretion of Na(+) (from 226 +/- 22 to 196 +/- 19 mumol/24 h). In conclusion, treatment with GA resulted in moderate but significant increases of creatinine clearance and altered electrolyte excretion, i.e., effects favorable in renal insufficiency.
- Pediatric Nephrology 06/2002; 17(5):390-1. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents a review of the industrially most relevant exudate gums: gum arabic, gum karya, and gum tragacanth. Exudate gums are obtained as the natural exudates of different tree species and exhibit unique properties in a wide variety of applications. This review covers the chemical structure, occurrence and production of the different gums. It also deals with the size and relative importance of the various players on the world market. Furthermore, it gives an overview of the main application fields of the different gums, both food and non-food.Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 12/2003; 63(1):10-21. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the present work we assessed the effect of treatment of rats with gum Arabic on acute renal failure induced by gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity. Rats were treated with the vehicle (2 mL/kg of distilled water and 5% w/v cellulose, 10 days), gum Arabic (2 mL/kg of a 10% w/v aqueous suspension of gum Arabic powder, orally for 10 days), or gum Arabic concomitantly with GM (80mg/kg/day intramuscularly, during the last six days of the treatment period). Nephrotoxicity was assessed by measuring the concentrations of creatinine and urea in the plasma and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the kidney cortex, and by light microscopic examination of kidney sections. The results indicated that concomitant treatment with gum Arabic and GM significantly increased creatinine and urea by about 183 and 239%, respectively (compared to 432 and 346%, respectively, in rats treated with cellulose and GM), and decreased that of cortical GSH by 21% (compared to 27% in the cellulose plus GM group) The GM-induced proximal tubular necrosis appeared to be slightly less severe in rats given GM together with gum Arabic than in those given GM and cellulose. It could be inferred that gum Arabic treatment has induced a modest amelioration of some of the histological and biochemical indices of GM nephrotoxicity. Further work is warranted on the effect of the treatments on renal functional aspects in models of chronic renal failure, and on the mechanism(s) involved.Renal Failure 02/2003; 25(1):15-20. · 0.94 Impact Factor