Article

CDK inhibitors: cell cycle regulators and beyond.

Université de Toulouse - LBCMCP and CNRS - UMR5088, Toulouse, France.
Developmental Cell (Impact Factor: 10.37). 03/2008; 14(2):159-69. DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2008.01.013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT First identified as cell cycle inhibitors mediating the growth inhibitory cues of upstream signaling pathways, the cyclin-CDK inhibitors of the Cip/Kip family p21Cip1, p27Kip1, and p57Kip2 have emerged as multifaceted proteins with functions beyond cell cycle regulation. In addition to regulating the cell cycle, Cip/Kip proteins play important roles in apoptosis, transcriptional regulation, cell fate determination, cell migration and cytoskeletal dynamics. A complex phosphorylation network modulates Cip/Kip protein functions by altering their subcellular localization, protein-protein interactions, and stability. These functions are essential for the maintenance of normal cell and tissue homeostasis, in processes ranging from embryonic development to tumor suppression.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
134 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cell proliferation is tightly controlled by the cell-cycle regulatory proteins, primarily by cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in the G1 phase. The ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS) scaffold protein, also known as kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins 220), has been previously identified as a prominent downstream target of neurotrophin and ephrin receptors. Many studies have reported that ARMS/Kidins220 acts as a major signaling platform in organizing the signaling complex to regulate various cellular responses in the nervous and vascular systems. However, the role of ARMS/Kidins220 in cell proliferation and cell-cycle progression has never been investigated. Here we report that knockdown of ARMS/Kidins220 inhibits mouse neuroblastoma cell proliferation by inducing slowdown of cell cycle in the G1 phase. This effect is mediated by the upregulation of a CDK inhibitor p21, which causes the decrease in cyclin D1 and CDK4 protein levels and subsequent reduction of pRb hyperphosphorylation. Our results suggest a new role of ARMS/Kidins220 as a signaling platform to regulate tumor cell proliferation in response to the extracellular stimuli.
    Molecules and Cells 11/2014; · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PCTAIRE1 is a cyclin-dependent kinase family protein that has been implicated in spermatogenesis. Although we recently revealed the function of PCTAIRE1 in tumorigenesis of epithelial carcinoma cells, its tumorigenic function in melanoma remains unclear. Interrogation of the Oncomine database revealed that malignant melanoma showed up-regulation of PCTAIRE1 mRNA compared to normal skin and benign melanocytic nevus tissues. In the melanoma cell lines A2058 and SK-MEL-28, PCTAIRE1 gene knockdown using siRNA or shRNA diminished melanoma cell proliferation as assessed by cellular ATP levels, cell counting and clonogenic assays. Moreover, FACS analyses of annexin V-PI staining and DNA content showed that PCTAIRE1 knockdown caused apoptosis in A2058 cells. In contrast, PCTAIRE1 does not appear to be involved in the proliferation of immortalized human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Depletion of PCTAIRE1 by siRNA/shRNA led to p27 accumulation in melanoma cells but not HaCaT cells. In tumor xenografts of melanoma A2058 cells, conditional knockdown of PCTAIRE1 restored p27 protein expression and suppressed tumor growth. Our findings reveal a crucial role for PCTAIRE1 in regulating p27 protein levels and tumor growth in melanoma cells, suggesting that PCTAIRE1 could provide a target for melanoma treatment.
    Oncoscience. 01/2014; 1(10):624-33.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: TOX is a nuclear factor essential for the development of CD4(+) T cells in the thymus. It is normally expressed in low amounts in mature CD4(+) T cells of the skin and the peripheral blood. We have recently discovered that the transcript levels of TOX were significantly increased in mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common type of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) as compared with normal skin or benign inflammatory skin. However, its involvement in advanced CTCL and its biological effects on CTCL pathogenesis have not been explored. In this study, we demonstrate that the TOX expression is also enhanced significantly in primary CD4(+)CD7(-) cells from patients with Sézary syndrome, a leukemic variant of CTCL, and that high TOX transcript levels correlate with increased disease-specific mortality. Stable knockdown of TOX in CTCL cells promoted apoptosis and reduced cell cycle progression, leading to less cell viability and colony-forming ability in vitro, and reduced tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, TOX knockdown significantly increased two cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, CDKN1B and CDKN1C. Finally, blocking CDKN1B and CDKN1C reversed growth inhibition of TOX knockdown. Collectively, these findings provide strong evidence that aberrant TOX activation is a critical oncogenic event for CTCL. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Hematology.
    Blood 12/2014; · 9.78 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
42 Downloads
Available from
May 31, 2014