CDK Inhibitors: Cell Cycle Regulators and Beyond

Université de Toulouse - LBCMCP and CNRS - UMR5088, Toulouse, France.
Developmental Cell (Impact Factor: 10.37). 03/2008; 14(2):159-69. DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2008.01.013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT First identified as cell cycle inhibitors mediating the growth inhibitory cues of upstream signaling pathways, the cyclin-CDK inhibitors of the Cip/Kip family p21Cip1, p27Kip1, and p57Kip2 have emerged as multifaceted proteins with functions beyond cell cycle regulation. In addition to regulating the cell cycle, Cip/Kip proteins play important roles in apoptosis, transcriptional regulation, cell fate determination, cell migration and cytoskeletal dynamics. A complex phosphorylation network modulates Cip/Kip protein functions by altering their subcellular localization, protein-protein interactions, and stability. These functions are essential for the maintenance of normal cell and tissue homeostasis, in processes ranging from embryonic development to tumor suppression.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While targeting experiments carried out on the genes encoding many cell cycle regulators have challenged our views of cell cycle control, they also suggest that redundancy might not be the only explanation for the observed perplexing phenotypes. Indeed, several observations hint at functions of cyclins and CDK inhibitors that cannot be accounted for by their sole role as kinase regulators. They are found involved in many cellular transactions, depending or not on CDKs that are not directly linked to cell cycle control, but participating to general mechanisms such as transcription, DNA repair or cytoskeleton dynamics. In this review we discuss the roles that these alternative functions might have in cancer cell proliferation and migration that sometime even challenge their definition as proliferation markers.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 03/2015; DOI:10.1080/15384101.2014.998085 · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With the exception of ApoE4, genome-wide association studies have failed to identify strong genetic risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, despite strong evidence of heritability, suggesting that many low penetrance genes may be involved. Additionally, the nature of the identified genetic risk factors and their relation to disease pathology is also largely obscure. Previous studies have found that a cancer-associated variant of the cell cycle inhibitor gene p21cip1 is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to confirm this association and to elucidate the effects of the variant on protein function and Alzheimer-type pathology. We examined the association of the p21cip1 variant with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease with dementia. The genotyping studies were performed on 719 participants of the Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing, 225 participants of a Parkinson's disease DNA bank, and 477 participants of the Human Random Control collection available from the European Collection of Cell Cultures. The post mortem studies were carried out on 190 participants. In the in-vitro study, human embryonic kidney cells were transfected with either the common or rare p21cip1 variant; and cytometry was used to assess cell cycle kinetics, p21cip1 protein expression and sub-cellular localisation. The variant was associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease with dementia, relative to age matched controls. Furthermore, the variant was associated with an earlier age of onset of Alzheimer's disease, and a more severe phenotype, with a primary influence on the accumulation of tangle pathology. In the in-vitro study, we found that the SNPs reduced the cell cycle inhibitory and anti-apoptotic activity of p21cip1. The results suggest that the cancer-associated variant of p21cip1 may contribute to the loss of cell cycle control in neurons that may lead to Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0114050. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114050 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the most deadly type of cancer in humans, with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) being the most frequent and aggressive type of lung cancer showing high resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Despite the outstanding progress made in anti-tumor therapy, discovering effective anti-tumor drugs is still a challenging task. Here we describe a new semisynthetic derivative of cucurbitacin B (DACE) as a potent inhibitor of NSCLC cell proliferation. DACE arrested the cell cycle of lung epithelial cells at the G2/M phase and induced cell apoptosis by interfering with EGFR activation and its downstream signaling, including AKT, ERK, and STAT3. Consistent with our in vitro studies, intraperitoneal application of DACE significantly suppressed the growth of mouse NSCLC that arises from type II alveolar pneumocytes due to constitutive expression of a human oncogenic c-RAF kinase (c-RAF-1-BxB) transgene in these cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that DACE is a promising lead compound for the development of an anti-lung-cancer drug.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2-2):e0117794. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117794 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 31, 2014