Liver eosinophilic infiltrate is a significant finding in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
ABSTRACT Eosinophilic infiltrate of liver tissue is described in primary cholestatic diseases, hepatic allograft rejection and drug-induced liver injury, but its significance and its implications in chronic hepatitis C are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of eosinophilic liver infiltrate in patients with chronic hepatitis C. We retrospectively evaluated 147 patients with chronic hepatitis C. The presence of eosinophilic infiltrate was investigated in liver biopsies, and a numeric count of eosinophilic leucocytes in every portal tract was assessed. An eosinophilic infiltrate of liver tissue (> or =3 cells evaluated in the portal / periportal spaces) was observed in 46 patients (31%), and patients who consumed drugs had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.02 (95% CI: 1.62-9.96) to have an eosinophilic infiltrate in liver biopsy. By logistic regression analysis, the presence of steatosis was independently associated with eosinophilic infiltrate (OR 5.86; 95% CI: 2.46-13.96) and homeostasis model assessment-score (OR 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00-1.39). Logistic regression analysis also showed that fibrosis staging > or = 2 by Scheuer score was associated with grading >1 by Scheuer score (OR 6.82; 95% CI 2.46-18.80) and eosinophilic infiltrate (OR 4.00; 95% CI 1.23-12.91). In conclusion, we observed that the eosinophilic infiltrate of liver tissue was significantly more frequent in patients who assumed drugs, and found a significant association between eosinophilic infiltrate, liver steatosis and liver fibrosis. These preliminary data could lead to a constant assumption of drugs as a co-factor of eosinophils-mediated liver injury in chronic hepatitis C.
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ABSTRACT: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major health issue, as it remains difficult to predict which new drugs will cause injury and who will be susceptible to this disease. This is due in part to the lack of animal models and knowledge of susceptibility factors that predispose individuals to DILI. In this regard, liver eosinophilia has often been associated with DILI, though its role remains unclear. We decided to investigate this problem in a murine model of halothane-induced liver injury (HILI). When female Balb/cJ mice were administered halothane, eosinophils were detected by flow cytometry in the liver within 12 hours and increased thereafter proportionally to liver damage. Chemokines, CCL11 and CCL24, which are known to attract eosinophils, increased in response to halothane-treatment. The severity of HILI was decreased significantly when the study was repeated in wild-type mice made deficient in eosinophils with a depleting antibody and in eosinophil lineage-ablated ΔdblGata(-/-) mice. Moreover, depletion of neutrophils by pretreating animals with Gr-1 antibody prior to halothane administration failed to reduce the severity of HILI at antibody concentrations that did not affect hepatic eosinophils. Immunohistochemical staining for the granule protein, major basic protein, revealed that eosinophils accumulated exclusively around areas of hepatocellular necrosis. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that eosinophils have a pathologic role in HILI in mice and suggest that they may contribute similarly in many clinical cases of DILI. (HEPATOLOGY 2012.).Hepatology 05/2013; 57(5). DOI:10.1002/hep.26196 · 11.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Liver eosinophilia has been associated with incidences of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) for more than 50 years, although its role in this disease has remained largely unknown. In this regard, we recently showed for the first time that eosinophils played a pathogenic role in a mouse model of halothane-induced liver injury (HILI). However, the signaling events that drove hepatic expression of eosinophil associated chemokines, eotaxins, eosinophil infiltration, and subsequent HILI were unclear. We now provide evidence implicating hepatic epithelial derived cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and type 2 immunity, in particular interleukin-4 (IL-4) production, in mediating hepatic eosinophilia and injury during HILI. TSLP was constitutively expressed by mouse hepatocytes and increased during HILI. Moreover, the severity of HILI was reduced in mice deficient in either the TSLP receptor (TSLPR) or IL-4 and was accompanied by decreases in serum levels of eotaxins and hepatic eosinophilia. Similarly, concanavalin A-induced liver injury, where type 2 cytokines and eosinophils play a significant role in its pathogenesis, was also reduced in TSLPR-deficient mice. Studies in vitro revealed that mouse and human hepatocytes produce TSLP and eotaxins in response to treatment with combinations of IL-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α. Conclusion: This report provides the first evidence implicating roles for hepatic TSLP signaling, type 2 immunity, and eosinophilia in mediating liver injury caused by a drug. (Hepatology 2014;)Hepatology 11/2014; 60(5). DOI:10.1002/hep.27169 · 11.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Innate immune system is the first line of defence against invading pathogens that is critical for the overall survival of the host. Human liver is characterised by a dual blood supply, with 80% of blood entering through the portal vein carrying nutrients and bacterial endotoxin from the gastrointestinal tract. The liver is thus constantly exposed to antigenic loads. Therefore, pathogenic microorganism must be efficiently eliminated whilst harmless antigens derived from the gastrointestinal tract need to be tolerized in the liver. In order to achieve this, the liver innate immune system is equipped with multiple cellular components; monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells which coordinate to exert tolerogenic environment at the same time detect, respond, and eliminate invading pathogens, infected or transformed self to mount immunity. This paper will discuss the innate immune cells that take part in human liver inflammation, and their roles in both resolution of inflammation and tissue repair.Mediators of Inflammation 08/2012; 2012:949157. DOI:10.1155/2012/949157 · 2.42 Impact Factor