Histopathologic characteristics of choroidal melanoma in eyes enucleated after iodine 125 brachytherapy in the collaborative ocular melanoma study.
ABSTRACT To describe the histopathologic findings in eyes with uveal melanoma that had secondary enucleation after failed brachytherapy plaque treatment.
Histopathologic findings in eyes that had secondary enucleation after plaque radiation therapy in the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) were reported on a standardized data form. The findings were compared with eyes that had primary enucleation for uveal melanoma.
Seventy-five eyes that had secondary enucleation were studied. Compared with primary enucleations, tumors in the irradiated eyes had lower mitotic activity, a smaller proportion of histologically intact tumor, more inflammation, more fibrosis, and more vascular damage within the tumor. In addition, compared with primary enucleations, eyes previously irradiated had a higher frequency of retinal invasion by the tumor and greater damage to the retinal vasculature, consistent with radiation retinopathy; neovascularization of the iris; and vitreous hemorrhage. Tumor growth or extrascleral extension was confirmed histopathologically in 25 of 42 eyes (60%) enucleated because of a reported failure of local control.
Eyes with secondary enucleation after brachytherapy differ histopathologically from eyes with primary enucleation for uveal melanoma. These histopathologic differences may be due to the effects of radiation, tissue conditions related to plaque failure, and, in some cases, tumor growth. In 40% of eyes enucleated because of suspected failure of local control, increased tumor size could not be histologically confirmed.
Article: Endothelial progenitor dysfunction in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy: treatment concept to correct diabetes-associated deficits.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Progressive obliteration of the retinal microvessels is a characteristic of diabetic retinopathy and the resultant retinal ischemia can lead to sight-threatening macular edema, macular ischemia and ultimately preretinal neovascularization. Bone marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a critical role in vascular maintenance and repair. There is still great debate about the most appropriate markers that define an EPC. EPCs can be isolated using cell sorting by surface phenotype selection or in vitro cell culture. For freshly isolated cells, EPC cell sorting is heavily dependent on the surface markers used; EPCs can also be isolated by in vitro propagation of heterogeneous mixtures of cells in culture using adhesion to specific substrates and cell growth characteristics. in vitro isolation enables consistent reproducibility and using this approach at least two distinct types of EPCs with different angiogenic properties have been identified from adult peripheral and umbilical cord blood; early EPCs (eEPCs) and late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells (OECs). Emerging studies demonstrate the potential of these cells in revascularization of ischemic/injured retina in animal models of retinal disease. Since ischemic retinopathies are leading causes of blindness, they are a potential disease target for EPC-based therapy. In this chapter, we summarize the current knowledge about EPCs and discuss the possibility of cellular therapy for treatment of diabetic macular ischemia and the vasodegenerative phase of diabetic retinopathy. We also report current pharmacological options that can be utilized to correct diabetes associated defects in EPCs so as to enhance the therapeutic utility of these cells.EPMA Journal, The 03/2010; 1(1):88-100.