Deteriorating dietary habits among adults with hypertension: DASH dietary accordance, NHANES 1988-1994 and 1999-2004.
ABSTRACT Although the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension trial) diet is among the therapeutic lifestyle changes recommended for individuals with hypertension (HTN), accordance with the DASH diet is not known.
Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from the 1988-1994 and 1999-2004 periods, DASH accordance among individuals with self-reported HTN was estimated based on 9 nutrient targets (fat, saturated fat, protein, cholesterol, fiber, magnesium, calcium, sodium, and potassium) (score range, 0-9). Using data from 1999-2004, we compared the DASH score among demographic groups in age- and energy-adjusted models and modeled the odds of a DASH-accordant dietary pattern (>or=4.5) using multivariable logistic regression. The DASH score, DASH accordance, and percentage of participants achieving individual targets were compared with estimates from NHANES 1988-1994 data.
Based on 4386 participants with known HTN in the recent survey period (1999-2004), the mean (SE) DASH score, after adjustment for age and energy intake, was 2.92 (0.05), with 19.4% (1.2%) classified as DASH accordant. In multivariable logistic regression models, DASH accordance was associated with older age, nonblack ethnicity, higher education, and known diabetes mellitus. Accordance with DASH was 7.3% lower in the recent survey period compared with NHANES 1988-1994 (26.7% [1.1%]) (P < .001), reflecting fewer patients with HTN meeting nutrient targets for total fat, fiber, and magnesium.
The dietary profile of adults with HTN in the United States has a low accordance with the DASH dietary pattern, and the dietary quality of adults with HTN has deteriorated since the introduction of the DASH diet, suggesting that secular trends have minimized the impact of the DASH message.
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ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem affecting predominantly older adults. Nonadherence to diet remains a significant contributor to acute decompensated HF (ADHF). The sodium-restricted Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH/SRD) eating plan reduces cardiovascular dysfunction that can lead to ADHF and is consistent with current HF guidelines. We propose that an intervention that promotes adherence to the DASH/SRD by home-delivering meals will be safe and improve health-related quality of life (QOL) in older adults after hospitalization for ADHF. This is a 3-center, randomized, single-blind, controlled trial of 12-week duration designed to determine the safety and efficacy of home-delivered DASH/SRD-compliant meals in older adults after discharge from ADHF hospitalization. Sixty-six subjects will be randomized in a 1:1 stratified fashion by gender and left ventricular ejection fraction (<50% vs ≥50%). Study subjects will receive either preprepared, home-delivered DASH/SRD-compliant meals or usual dietary advice for 4weeks after hospital discharge. Investigators will be blinded to group assignment, food diaries, and urinary electrolyte measurements until study completion. The primary efficacy end point is the change in the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire summary scores for health-related QOL from study enrollment to 4weeks postdischarge. Safety evaluation will focus on hypotension, renal insufficiency, and hyperkalemia. Exploratory end points include echocardiography, noninvasive vascular testing, markers of oxidative stress, and salt taste sensitivity. This randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of 4weeks of DASH/SRD after ADHF hospitalization. By testing a novel dietary intervention supported by multiple levels of evidence including preliminary data in outpatients with stable HF, we will address a critical evidence gap in the care of older patients with ADHF. If effective and safe, this intervention could be scaled to assess effects on readmission and healthcare costs in older adults after ADHF. Published by Elsevier Inc.American Heart Journal 01/2015; 169(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2014.11.021 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Factors influencing the use of dietary interventions for modification of CKD risk among African Americans have not been well-explored. We assessed perceived barriers and facilitators of CKD prevention through dietary modifications among African Americans with low socioeconomic status (SES) and at high risk for CKD. We conducted a qualitative study involving three 90 minute focus groups of low SES (limited education, unemployed, uninsured, or income < $25,000/year) African American residents of Baltimore, Maryland (N = 17), who were aged 18-60 years, with no known history of CKD and (1) a family history of end stage renal disease and (2) self-reported diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, HIV or obesity. A trained moderator asked a series of 21 closed and open-ended questions. Group sessions were recorded, transcribed, and two independent investigators reviewed transcripts to identify common themes. Participants' mean (SD) age was 39.8 (12.4) years. Most (59%) were female and earned < $5,000/year (71%). One quarter (24%) had self-reported diabetes and over half had hypertension (53%). Few (12%) perceived their CKD risk as high. Perceived barriers to CKD prevention through dietary change included the expense and unavailability of healthy foods, family member preferences, convenience of unhealthy foods, and inability to break lifelong habits. They identified vouchers for healthy foods, family-based interventions, nutritional counseling and group gatherings for persons interested in making dietary changes as acceptable facilitators of dietary CKD prevention efforts. Low SES African Americans at high risk for CKD had limited perception of their risk but they identified multiple barriers and potential facilitators of CKD prevention via dietary modifications which can inform future studies and public health interventions.BMC Nephrology 12/2014; 15(1):194. DOI:10.1186/1471-2369-15-194 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adverse blood pressure (BP) is a major independent risk factor for epidemic cardiovascular diseases affecting almost one third of the US adult population. This review synthesizes results from studies published over the past few years on BP differences and prevalent hypertension between US blacks and whites and their different intakes of foods (e.g., fruits, vegetables, and dairy products) and micronutrients (e.g., vitamin D, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus). Studies have consistently reported higher prevalence of adverse BP levels and hypertension and less favorable dietary intakes in blacks than in whites, but the influence of specific dietary factors on high BP risk for blacks remains unclear.Current Hypertension Reports 02/2015; 17(2):517. DOI:10.1007/s11906-014-0517-x · 3.90 Impact Factor