Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is a Risk Factor for Death in Patients With Stroke
ABSTRACT Sleep apnea occurs frequently among patients with stroke, but it is still unknown whether a diagnosis of sleep apnea is an independent risk factor for mortality. We aimed to investigate whether obstructive or central sleep apnea was related to reduced long-term survival among patients with stroke.
Of 151 patients admitted for in-hospital stroke rehabilitation in the catchment area of Umeå from April 1, 1995, to May 1, 1997, 132 underwent overnight sleep apnea recordings at a mean (SD) of 23 (8) days after the onset of stroke. All patients were followed up prospectively for a mean (SD) of 10.0 (0.6) years, with death as the primary outcome; no one was lost to follow-up. Obstructive sleep apnea was defined when the obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was 15 or greater, and central sleep apnea was defined when the central apnea-hypopnea index was 15 or greater. Patients with obstructive and central apnea-hypopnea indexes of less than 15 served as control subjects.
Of 132 enrolled patients, 116 had died at follow-up. The risk of death was higher among the 23 patients with obstructive sleep apnea than controls (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.95; P = .03), independent of age, sex, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and Barthel index of activities of daily living. There was no difference in mortality between the 28 patients with central sleep apnea and controls (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.76; P = .80).
Patients with stroke and obstructive sleep apnea have an increased risk of early death. Central sleep apnea was not related to early death among the present patients.
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ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is seen in approximately 60% to 70% of patients with stroke or ischemic heart disease (IHD). The relationship between OSA and recurrent vascular events and all-cause mortality remains inconclusive. We aimed to systematically evaluate the associations between OSA and serious adverse outcomes following stroke or IHD by a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE in August 2014 for studies that evaluated the prospective associations between OSA and the risk of stroke, IHD, and death among stroke or IHD patients. Outcome data were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Subgroup, heterogeneity, and sensitivity analyses and publication bias were performed.Of 13 hospital-based cohort studies included, 5 reported results on stroke (n = 860), 6 reported on IHD (n = 1083), and 11 reported on all-cause death or cardiovascular death (n = 1930). OSA was significantly associated with the risk of stroke, IHD, and all-cause mortality after stroke or IHD. The pooled relative risks were 1.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-2.92) for stroke, 1.83 (95% CI, 1.15-2.93) for IHD, and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.33-1.89) for all-cause mortality. There was no evidence of significant between-study heterogeneity. The results did not materially change in the sensitivity analyses for the outcomes of stroke and all-cause mortality.OSA may be a significant predictor of serious adverse outcomes following stroke or IHD. More high-quality studies are needed to determine if better treatment of OSA leads to fewer recurrent vascular events, especially a large-scale, multicenter randomized-controlled trial.Medicine 12/2014; 93(29):e336. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000000336 · 4.87 Impact Factor
Article: [Obstructive sleep apnea in women.][Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of sleep disturbances and their symptomatic manifestations may be different in men and women. Women with obstructive sleep apnea are less likely to be diagnosed with sleep apnea compared to men, probably due to atypical symptoms such as morning headaches, symptoms of depression and daytime fatigue. There is a great importance of diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders regarding quality of life, co-morbidity and mortality in both genders. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(52), 2067-2073.Orvosi Hetilap 12/2014; 155(52):2067-2073. DOI:10.1556/OH.2014.30058
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ABSTRACT: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy comprises an air/oxygen blender, an active humidifier, a single heated circuit, and a nasal cannula. It delivers adequately heated and humidified medical gas at up to 60 L/min of flow and is considered to have a number of physiological effects: reduction of anatomical dead space, PEEP effect, constant fraction of inspired oxygen, and good humidification. While there have been no big randomized clinical trials, it has been gaining attention as an innovative respiratory support for critically ill patients. Most of the available data has been published in the neonatal field. Evidence with critically ill adults are poor; however, physicians apply it to a variety of patients with diverse underlying diseases: hypoxemic respiratory failure, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, post-extubation, pre-intubation oxygenation, sleep apnea, acute heart failure, patients with do-not-intubate order, and so on. Many published reports suggest that HFNC decreases breathing frequency and work of breathing and reduces needs of escalation of respiratory support in patients with diverse underlying diseases. Some important issues remain to be resolved, such as its indication, timing of starting and stopping HFNC, and escalating treatment. Despite these issues, HFNC oxygen therapy is an innovative and effective modality for the early treatment of adults with respiratory failure with diverse underlying diseases.12/2015; 3(1). DOI:10.1186/s40560-015-0084-5