Bioconcentration of Organic Chemicals: Is a Solid-Phase Microextraction Fiber a Good Surrogate for Biota?

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80176, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 01/2003; 36(24):5399-404. DOI: 10.1021/es0257016
Source: PubMed


When organic chemicals are extracted from a water sample with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers, the resulting concentrations in exposed fibers are proportional to the hydrophobicity of the compounds. This fiber accumulation is analogous to the bioconcentration of chemicals observed in aquatic organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the prospect of measuring the total concentration in SPME fibers to estimate the total body residue in biota for the purpose of risk assessment. Using larvae of the midge, Chironomus riparius and disposable 15-microm poly(dimethylsiloxane) fibers, we studied the accumulation and accumulation kinetics of a number of narcotic compounds with a range of log K(ow) between 3 and 6. The fibers, which have a larger surface area-to-volume ratio, had consistently higher uptake and elimination rate constants (k1 and k2, respectively) than midge larvae and accumulated the chemicals 5 times faster. Comparison of the relationships of the partition coefficients K(PDMS-water) and K(midge-water) (lipid-normalized) to log K(ow) for all compounds yielded a factor of 28 for translating fiber concentrations to biota concentrations. This factor can be used to estimate internal concentrations in biota for compounds structurally similar to the compounds in this study. The exact chemical domain to which this factor can be applied needs to be defined in future research.

Download full-text


Available from: Michiel H. S. Kraak, Jun 09, 2014
  • Source
    • "Both approaches allow WAF exposures to be expressed in terms of TUs which provides a more toxicologically relevant exposure parameter to compare and establish relationships to observed effects than conventional measures of oil exposures, e.g., oil loading , TPH or TPAH. Another approach for improving characterization of dissolved exposures relies on analytical measurements using passive samplers (Parkerton et al., 2000; Verbruggen et al., 2000; Leslie et al., 2002; Lu et al., 2011; Allan et al., 2012; Mayer et al., 2014). These devices are constructed from different polymers that can be equilibrated with dissolved hydrocarbon constituents in a WAF sample in a single step prior to analysis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methods that quantify dissolved hydrocarbons are needed to link oil exposures to toxicity. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers can serve this purpose. If fibers are equilibrated with oiled water, dissolved hydrocarbons partition to and are concentrated on the fiber. The absorbed concentration (Cpolymer) can be quantified by thermal desorption using GC/FID. Further, given that the site of toxic action is hypothesized as biota lipid and partitioning of hydrocarbons to lipid and fibers is well correlated, Cpolymer is hypothesized to be a surrogate for toxicity prediction. To test this method, toxicity data for physically and chemically dispersed oils were generated for shrimp, Americamysis bahia, and compared to test exposures characterized by Cpolymer. Results indicated that Cpolymer reliably predicted toxicity across oils and dispersions. To illustrate field application, SPME results are reported for oil spills at the Ohmsett facility. SPME fibers provide a practical tool to improve characterization of oil exposures and predict effects in future lab and field studies.
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 08/2014; 86(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.07.006 · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Because molecular size and hydrophobicity are strongly correlated for nonpolar compounds, a weak decrease in R s with increasing K ow can be expected. Thus, Leslie et al. (2002) found for SPME fibres that R s /V s (k 1 in the terminology of these authors) is virtually independent of K ow in the range 3<K ow <6. Booij et al. (2003b) found for SPMDs that R s was proportional to K ow "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The state of the art of passive water sampling of (nonpolar) organic contaminants is presented. Its suitability for regulatory monitoring is discussed, with an emphasis on the information yielded by passive sampling devices (PSDs), their relevance and associated uncertainties. Almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) targeted by the Stockholm Convention are nonpolar or weakly polar, hydrophobic substances, making them ideal targets for sampling in water using PSDs. Widely used nonpolar PSDs include semi-permeable membrane devices, low-density polyethylene and silicone rubber. The inter-laboratory variation of equilibrium partition constants between PSD and water is mostly 0.2-0.5 log units, depending on the exact matrix used. The sampling rate of PSDs is best determined by using performance reference compounds during field deployment. The major advantage of PSDs over alternative matrices applicable in trend monitoring (e.g. sediments or biota) is that the various sources of variance including analytical variance and natural environmental variance can be much better controlled, which in turn results in a reduction of the number of analysed samples required to obtain results with comparable statistical power. Compliance checking with regulatory limits and analysis of temporal and spatial contaminant trends are two possible fields of application. In contrast to the established use of nonpolar PSDs, polar samplers are insufficiently understood, but research is in progress to develop PSDs for the quantitative assessment of polar waterborne contaminants. In summary, PSD-based monitoring is a mature technique for the measurement of aqueous concentrations of apolar POPs, with a well-defined accuracy and precision.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 07/2012; 19(6):1885-95. DOI:10.1007/s11356-012-0748-9 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The bioavailabilities of organochlorinated pesticides can be determined by solid phase microextraction (Tang et al., 1999). Negligible-depletion solid phase microextraction (nd-SPME) was introduced several years ago as a partition-based extraction or sampling technique to measure freely dissolved concentrations in several different matrices (Vaes et al., 1996; Poerschmann et al., 1997; Urrestarazu-Ramos et al., 1998; Heringa and Hermens, 2003) and to mimic accumulation in biota (Parkerton et al., 2000; Verbruggen et al., 2000; Leslie et al., 2002). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The leachability of lindane from different biosolid amended soils was determined and compared to its bioavailability. Sand, soil, and a mixture of soil-sand (1:1 w/w) were spiked with lindane, blended with different amounts of biosolids, and subjected to a leaching process with water that lasted for 1-28 d. This procedure is in accordance with ISO/TS 21268-1: 2007. After these batch tests, lindane was extracted from the leachates using three different solvent-free microextraction techniques, including solid phase microextraction (SPME), stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), and silicone rod extraction (SRE). The amount of lindane was determined with thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The efficiencies of the three microextraction techniques were statistically different, and the efficiency could be related to the amount of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in each extraction device. However, all of the techniques provide data that shows that the leachability of lindane is dependent on the amount of organic matter contained in the matrix. The results of the lindane leachability assay were compared to the bioavailability of lindane, which was determined by measuring the amount of lindane that accumulated in the roots of wheat plants grown in similar soil-biosolid systems. It was confirmed that the amount of organic matter in the matrix is a determining factor for lindane immobilization. The presence of biosolids decreases the mobility of lindane in all of the systems under study. Similarly, increasing biosolid concentrations in the soil significantly decreased the bioavailability of lindane and, consequently, plant absorption. The good correlation (R(2)=0.997) between the leachability of lindane from the matrix and plant absorption of lindane indicates that the proposed biomimetic methodology can predict the bioavailability of lindane in a time period as short as 7d. The results of this work confirm that amending contaminated soils with biosolids is beneficial for immobilizing lindane and helps prevent the percolation of lindane through the soil profile and into groundwater.
    Chemosphere 07/2011; 84(4):397-402. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.03.070 · 3.34 Impact Factor
Show more