Preexisting Resistance to Nonnucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitors Predicts Virologic Failure of an Efavirenz-Based Regimen in Treatment-Naive HIV-1–Infected Subjects

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.78). 04/2008; 197(6):867-70. DOI: 10.1086/528802
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A case-cohort study was used to determine the effect of baseline nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance, as assessed by viral genotyping, on the response to efavirenz-containing regimens in AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5095. The sample included a random cohort of efavirenz-treated subjects plus unselected subjects who experienced virologic failure. Of 220 subjects in the random cohort, 57 (26%) had virologic failure. The prevalence of baseline NNRTI resistance was 5%. The risk of virologic failure for subjects with baseline NNRTI resistance was higher than that for subjects without such resistance (hazard ratio 2.27 [95% confidence interval], 1.15-4.49; P = .018). These results support resistance testing before starting antiretroviral therapy.

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