Moya A, Pereto J, Gil R, Latorre A.. Learning how to live together: genomic insights into prokaryote-animal symbioses. Nat Rev Genet 9: 218-229

Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de València, Apartado de correos 22085. 46071 València and CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Spain.
Nature Reviews Genetics (Impact Factor: 36.98). 04/2008; 9(3):218-29. DOI: 10.1038/nrg2319
Source: PubMed


Our understanding of prokaryote-eukaryote symbioses as a source of evolutionary innovation has been rapidly increased by the advent of genomics, which has made possible the biological study of uncultivable endosymbionts. Genomics is allowing the dissection of the evolutionary process that starts with host invasion then progresses from facultative to obligate symbiosis and ends with replacement by, or coexistence with, new symbionts. Moreover, genomics has provided important clues on the mechanisms driving the genome-reduction process, the functions that are retained by the endosymbionts, the role of the host, and the factors that might determine whether the association will become parasitic or mutualistic.

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    • "Dependency of Westeberhardia on host - provided metabolites With a genome size reduction to 533 kb and a GC content of 23 . 41% , the Westeberhardia genome exhibits features of degenerative genome evolution following the transition to obligate symbiosis ( Moya et al . , 2008 ) . In addition to reduced effective population sizes in host - associated bacteria com - pared with free - living relatives , small effective population size of C . obscurior ( Schrader et al . , 2014 ) and social insects in general ( Romiguier et al . , 2014 ) could lead to even faster genome degeneration . With a coding density of 70"
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    • "Endosymbiotic bacteria are harbored within the cells or tissues of many arthropods, including insects (Buchner, 1965; Brown et al., 1995; Frohlich et al., 1999). The symbiotic relationships between insects and endosymbionts drive evolutionary interactions, resulting in broad ranging activities from neutralism to ammensalism (Moran, 2007; Moya et al., 2008). "
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    • "Mutualistic symbioses between bacteria and animals are widespread, occur in almost all animal phyla and play major roles in the development, health and evolution of their hosts (McFall-Ngai, 2002; Walker and Crossman, 2007; Moya et al., 2008; Fraune and Bosch, 2010; McFall-Ngai et al., 2013). In many mutualistic symbioses, the function of the bacterial symbionts is to provide essential nutrients to their hosts (Moran, 2007; Moya et al., 2008). In chemosynthetic symbioses, the bacteria provide all or most of their host's nutrition using inorganic compounds such as sulfide or hydrogen (H 2) as energy sources to fix carbon dioxide (CO2) into biomass (Stewart et al., 2005; DeChaine and Cavanaugh, 2006; Dubilier et al., 2008; Petersen et al., 2011; Kleiner et al., 2012a). "
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